Climate-Biosphere Interaction

The terrestrial biosphere, predominantly the vegetation, is controlled by the climate. In turn, the vegetation affects the climate through numerous biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. As an example, a boreal forest pumps water out of the ground, traps solar irradiation at the surface by masking snow cover in spring, and stores an ample amount of carbon in biomass and litter. On the long term, the vegetation alters soils, creates its own local environment, and affects climate far beyond its own boundaries.

How strong are interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate, such as feedback between the carbon cycle and climate (see figure 1)? Could external forcings, for example CO2-induced warming or deforestation, lead to abrupt transitions in natural ecosystems reflected in changes in precipitation and temperature as well as in their extremes? To address these questions, our group develops and uses models of different complexity, from simple conceptual models to sophisticated Earth System models.

Despite of ongoing deforestation, the land takes up about 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions today. This enormous service of the land biosphere to humans helps to slow down global warming, but the capacity of land to absorb fossil CO2 emissions is limited. If fossil fuel emissions stop, the land will still continue to take up some carbon, but at a much smaller rate. To understand and project future climate, it is very important to know how exactly the land biosphere responds to climate and CO2 changes on these time scales. 

Our research

Climate-biosphere interactions is an enormous research area, with fascinating examples from the past (green Sahara, glacial cycles), present (land CO2 fertilization), and future (carbon-climate feedback). Out of many research opportunities, the main focus of our group is on processes affecting the climate on decadal to centennial timescales. In particular, high latitude ecosystems show a strong sensitivity to ongoing climate change, with a significant potential to affect the climate though modified CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Physical feedbacks between land surface hydrology and the climate could substantially modify atmospheric and oceanic circulations beyond the Arctic boundaries. What is the future of the Arctic, will it be drier or wetter, and how does it affect the global climate?

Permafrost and carbon dynamics

High latitude ecosystems have served as a slow but permanent carbon sink during the last millennia and continue to take up carbon at present (e.g., Bruhwiler et al., 2021). A unique feature of this region is the presence of permanently frozen soils, which contain substantial amounts of carbon accumulated during glacial cycles, but also water in the form of ground ice. The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the average rate of warming for the planet as a whole. What is the fate of frozen carbon in the future, and are changes in permafrost and carbon irreversible?

The most recent IPCC Assessment Report estimates a release from permafrost regions of 18 PgC (uncertainty range 3.1–41 PgC) per one degree of global temperature rise by the year 2100. Simulations done in our group fall within this uncertainty range. How much is it in comparison with the fossil fuel emissions? The carbon emissions needed to raise the global temperature by 1°C in the MPI Earth System Model are about 600 PgC (MacDougal et al., 2020). Additional CO2 emissions coming from permafrost thawing amplify the climate change by 2-10% (Kleinen and Brovkin, 2018), which is not negligible. It cannot, however, lead to a runaway effect, in which greenhouse warming reinforces itself eventually leading to the evaporation of all liquid water on the planet, similar to the climate on Venus. Stronger thawing is expected by the year 2300 (Figure 2) for the high-end RCP8.5 scenario (Figure 2).

Interactions between land surface processes and climate could lead to the phenomenon of multiple steady states. One famous example is the feedback between atmospheric circulation and the vegetation cover in North Africa that could explain the substantial greening of the Sahara in the mid-Holocene. Several studies suggest that, for present-day, both desert and green states are potentially stable in North Africa, and the transition between them could be rather abrupt (link to Martin’s page). For permafrost soils, interactions between soil temperature, water, and organic carbon could result in two different states: dry, organic-poor, warmer soil, and wet, organic-rich, colder soil. The difference between these two states could be regionally very substantial (Figure 3).

Another example of alternative steady states comes from the analysis of remote sensing data (Abis and Brovkin, Biogeosciences, 2017). When we studied the link between observed tree-cover fraction distribution in boreal regions with mean annual rainfall, minimum temperature, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire frequency, and soil texture, we found areas with potentially alternative tree cover states (forest, mixed, treeless) under the same environmental conditions. These areas, although encompassing a minor fraction of the boreal area (ca. 5 %), correspond to possible transition zones with a reduced resilience to disturbances. (Figure 4).


Closing the scaling gap between fine-scale processes and Earth System Models in the Arctic

The Arctic landscape is a mixture of open water, wetlands, forest and tundra. Current Earth system models have too coarse a spatial resolution (ca 100 km) to capture processes on a fine-scale of few meters. How can we deal with this extreme heterogeneity of the land surface? To close the scaling gap, our group develops an upscaling approach to link micro-, meso-, and macro scales (Figure 5). We are enhancing the resolution of our land surface model ICON-Land/JSBACH down to a few kilometers, aiming at running it on a pan-Arctic scale in the synergy project Q-ARCTIC, recently funded by the European Research Council. We are working on this in collaboration with research groups focused on remote sensing of the environment and vegetation in the Arctic (b.geos) and local scale observations and regional inversions of greenhouse gas fluxes (MPI-BGC).

Processes on a fine scale are highly parameterized in large-scale models. If we consider an example of very small water bodies or ponds, they contribute disproportionally to the Arctic methane emissions. Methane concentrations in ponds vary strongly, calling for process-based understanding of variability. To do so, Rehder et al. (2021) categorized polygonal-tundra ponds in the Lena River Delta into three geomorphological types with distinct differences in drivers of methane concentrations: polygonal-center ponds, ice-wedge ponds and larger, merged polygonal ponds (Figure, left and center). They found that methane concentrations negatively correlate with the size of the pond: the smaller the pond, the higher the surface concentrations of methane (Figure, right). Also, no single driver (such as wind speed, water temperature, or water depth) could explain variability over all pond types suggesting that more complex upscaling methods such as process-based modeling are needed.

Modeling wetlands and the methane cycle

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas produced in anaerobic conditions, in particular in inundated soils (wetlands). Although the feedback between climate and methane is not as strong as between CO2 and temperature, increasing CO2 concentrations and changes in the surface hydrology are leading to substantial increases in wetland emissions to the atmosphere in future scenarios. These changes are underestimated in the current sets of future projections (Figure 7). Natural sources of methane are also becoming important in the climate stabilization scenarios when the global temperature increase relative to pre-industrial is kept below a certain threshold such as 1.5 or 2°C.

In short — very unlikely, but we cannot completely rule it out. Our group is involved in a joint project with the marine biogeochemistry groups focusing on the potential release of methane from sub-sea permafrost thawing.

During glacial cycles, the shallow Arctic shelf was land exposed to freezing temperatures that accumulated organic matter during short but productive summers. After the melting of the ice sheets, the shelf was flooded and frozen sediments are now slowly thawing from the top but also from the bottom due to a geothermal heat flux. Under warming scenarios, the ocean floor will warm and ice in the sediments will melt, allowing microbes to decompose previously frozen organic matter. This process leads to in-situ production of methane, one part of which could be eaten up by methane-consuming microbes in the sediments, and another part of which can escape into the atmosphere. The stronger the warming, the more ice will melt in the sediments (Figure 8). This process is very slow, but under certain scenarios, by the year 2300, the methane emissions from the shelf could be more than the methane emission from boreal wetlands (work in progress).

Group members and publications

  • Bustamante, M., Roy, J., Ospina, D., Achakulwisut, P., Aggarwal, A., Bastos, A., Broadgate, W., Canadell, J., Carr, E., Chen, D., Cleugh, H., Ebi, K., Edwards, C., Farbotko, C., Fernández-Martínez, M., Frölicher, T., Fuss, S., Geden, O., Gruber, N., Harrington, L., Hauck, J., Hausfather, Z., Hebden, S., Hebinck, A., Huq, S., Huss, M., Jamero, M., Juhola, S., Kumarasinghe, N., Lwasa, S., Mallick, B., Martin, M., McGreevy, S., Mirazo, P., Mukherji, A., Muttitt, G., Nemet, G., Obura, D., Okereke, C., Oliver, T., Orlove, B., Ouedraogo, N., Patra, P., Pelling, M., Pereira, L., Persson, Å., Pongratz, J., Prakash, A., Rammig, A., Raymond, C., Redman, A., Reveco, C., Rockström, J., Rodrigues, R., Rounce, D., Schipper, E., Schlosser, P., Selomane, O., Semieniuk, G., Shin, Y.-J., Siddiqui, T., Singh, V., Sioen, G., Sokona, Y., Stammer, D., Steinert, N., Suk, S., Sutton, R., Thalheimer, L., Thompson, V., Trencher, G., Van Der Geest, K., Werners, S., Wübbelmann, T., Wunderling, N., Yin, J., Zickfeld, K. & Zscheischler, J. (2024). Ten new insights in climate science 2023. Global Sustainability, 7: e19. doi:10.1017/sus.2023.25 [publisher-version]
  • Creel, R., Miessner, F., Wilkenskjeld, S., Austermann, J. & Overduin, P. (2024). Glacial isostatic adjustment reduces past and future Arctic subsea permafrost. Nature Communications, 15: 3232. doi:10.1038/s41467-024-45906-8 [publisher-version]
  • de Hertog, S., Lopez-Fabara, C., van der Ent, R., Keune, J., Miralles, D., Portmann, R., Schemm, S., Havermann, F., Guo, S., Luo, F., Manola, I., Lejeune, Q., Pongratz, J., Schleussner, C.-F., Seneviratne, S. & Thiery, W. (2024). Effects of idealized land cover and land management changes on the atmospheric water cycle. Earth System Dynamics, 15, 265-291. doi:10.5194/esd-15-265-2024 [publisher-version]
  • de Vrese, P., Stacke, T., Gayler, V. & Brovkin, V. (2024). Permafrost cloud feedback may amplify climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 51: e2024GL109034. doi:10.1029/2024GL109034 [publisher-version]
  • García-Pereira, F., González-Rouco, J., Schmid, T., Melo-Aguilar, C., Vegas-Cañas, C., Steinert, N., Roldán-Gómez, P., Cuesta-Valero, F., García-García, A., Beltrami, H. & de Vrese, P. (2024). Thermodynamic and hydrological drivers of the soil and bedrock thermal regimes in central Spain. Soil, 10, 1-21. doi:10.5194/egusphere-2023-462 [publisher-version]
  • García-Pereira, F., González-Rouco, J., Melo-Aguilar, C., Steinert, N., García-Bustamante, E., de Vrese, P., Jungclaus, J., Lorenz, S., Hagemann, S., Cuesta-Valero, F., García-García, A. & Beltrami, H. (2024). First comprehensive assessment of industrial-era land heat uptake from multiple sources. Under open review for Earth System Dynamics. Earth System Dynamics, 15, 547-564. doi:10.5194/esd-15-547-2024 [copyright-transfer-agreement]
  • Goosse, H., Brovkin, V., Meissner, K., Menviel, L., Mouchet, A., Muscheler, R. & Nilson, A. (2024). Atmospheric D14C in the northern and southern hemisphere over the past two millennia: role of production rate, southern hemisphere westerly winds and ocean circulation changes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 326: 108502. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2024.108502
  • Heinicke, S., Volkholz, J., Schewe, J., Gosling, S., Müller Schmied, H., Zimmermann, S., Mengel, M., Sauer, I., Burek, P., Chang, J., Kou-Giesbrecht, S., Grillakis, M., Guillaumot, L., Hanasaki, N., Koutroulis, A., Otta, K., Qi, W., Satoh, Y., Stacke, T., Yokohata, T. & Frieler, K. (2024). Global hydrological models continue to overestimate river discharge. Environmental Research Letters, 19: 074005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ad52b0 [publisher-version]
  • Nyawira, S., Herold, M., Mulatu, K., Roman-Cuesta, R., Houghton, R., Grassi, G., Pongratz, J., Grasser, T. & Verchot, L. (2024). Pantropical CO2 emissions and removals for the AFOLU sector in the period 1990-2018. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 29: 13. doi:10.1007/s11027-023-10096-z [publisher-version]
  • Rockström, J., Kotzé, L., Milutinovic, S., Biermann, F., Brovkin, V., Donges, J., Ebbeson, J., French, D., Gupta, J., Kim, R., Lenton, T., Lenzi, D., Nakicenovic, N., Neumann, B., Schuppert, F., Winkelmann, R., Bosselmann, K., Folke, C., Lucht, W., Schlosberg, D., Richardson, K. & Steffen, W. (2024). The planetary commons: A new paradigm for safeguarding Earth- regulating systems in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121. doi:10.1073/pnas.2301531121 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Rosan, T., Sitch, S., O’Sullivan, M., Basso, L., Wilson, C., Silva, C., Gloor, E., Fawcett, D., Heinrich, V., Souza, J., Bezerra, F., von Randow, C., Mercado, L., Gatti, L., Wiltshire, A., Friedlingstein, P., Pongratz, J., Schwingshackl, C., Williams, M., Smallman, L., Knauer, J., Arora, V., Kennedy, D., Tian, H., Yuan, W., Jain, A., Falk, S., Poulter, B., Arneth, A., Sun, Q., Zaehle, S., Walker, A., Kato, E., Yue, X., Bastos, A., Ciais, P., Wigneron, J.-P., Albergel, C. & Aragão, L. (2024). Synthesis of the land carbon fluxes of the Amazon region between 2010 and 2020. Communications Earth and Environment, 5: 46. doi:10.1038/s43247-024-01205-0 [publisher-version]
  • Schädel, C., Rogers, B., Lawrence , D., Koven , C., Brovkin, V., Burke, E., Genet, H., Huntzinger, D., Jafarov, E., McGuire, A., Riley, W. & Natali, S. (2024). Earth system models must include permafrost carbon processes. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01909-9
  • Shihora, L., Liu, Z., Balidakis, K., Wilms, J., Dahle, C., Flechtner, F., Dill, R. & Dobslaw, H. (2024). Accounting for residual errors in atmosphere–ocean background models applied in satellite gravimetry. Journal of Geodesy, 98: 27. doi:10.1007/s00190-024-01832-7 [publisher-version]
  • Son, R., Stacke, T., Gayler, V., Nabel, J., Schnur, R., Silva, L., Requena Mesa, C., Winkler, A., Hantson, S., Zaehle, S., Weber, U. & Carvalhais, N. (2024). Integration of a deep-learning-based fire model into a global land surface model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 16: e2023MS003710. doi:10.1029/2023MS003710 [publisher-version]
  • Steinert, N., Cuesta‐Valero, F., García‐Pereira, F., de Vrese, P., Melo Aguilar, C., García‐Bustamante, E., Jungclaus, J. & González‐Rouco, J. (2024). Underestimated land heat uptake alters the global energy distribution in CMIP6 climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, 51: e2023GL107613. doi:10.1029/2023GL107613 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Torres Mendonca, G., Reick, C. & Pongratz, J. (2024). Timescale dependence of airborne fraction and underlying climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks for weak perturbations in CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 21, 1923-1960. doi:10.5194/bg-21-1923-2024 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Weitzel, N., Andres, H., Baudouin, J.-P., Kapsch, M.-L., Mikolajewicz, U., Jonkers, L., Bothe, O., Ziegler, E., Kleinen, T., Paul, A. & Rehfeld, K. (2024). Towards spatio-temporal comparison of simulated and reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the last deglaciation. Climate of the Past, 20, 865-890. doi:10.5194/cp-20-865-2024 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Wunderling, N., von der Heydt, A., Aksenov, Y., Barker, S., Bastiaansen, R., Brovkin, V., Brunetti, M., Couplet, V., Kleinen, T., Lear, C., Lohmann, J., Roman-Cuesta, R., Sinet, S., Swingedouw, D., Winkelmann, R., Anand, P., Barichivich, J., Bathiany, S., Baudena, M., Bruun, J., Chiessi, C., Coxall, H., Docquier, D., Dönges, J., Falkena, S., Klose, A., Obura, D., Rocha, J., Rynders, S., Steinert, N. & Willeit, M. (2024). Climate tipping point interactions and cascades: a review. Earth System Dynamics, 15, 41-74. doi:10.5194/esd-15-41-2024 [publisher-version]
  • Chang, K.-Y., Riley, W., Collier, N., McNicol, G., Fluet-Chouinard, E., Knox, S., Delwiche, K., Jackson, R., Poulter, B., Saunois, M., Chandra, N., Gedney, N., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Joos, F., Kleinen, T., Maggi, F., McNorton, J., Melton, J., Miller, P., Niwa, Y., Pasut, C., Patra, P., Peng, C., Peng, S., Segers, A., Tian, H., Tsuruta, A., Yao, Y., Yin, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, Z., Zhu, Q., Zhu, Q. & Zhuang, Q. (2023). Observational constraints reduce model spread but not uncertainty in global wetland methane emission estimates. Global Change Biology: early view. doi:10.1111/gcb.16755
  • De Hertog, S., Havermann, F., Vanderkelen, I., Guo, S., Luo, F., Manola, I., Coumou, D., Davin, E., Duveiller, G., Lejeune, Q., Pongratz, J., Schleussner, C.-F., Seneviratne, S. & Thiery, W. (2023). The biogeophysical effects of idealized land cover and land management changes in Earth system models. Earth System Dynamics, 14, 629-667. doi:10.5194/esd-14-629-2023 [publisher-version]
  • de Vrese, P., Beckebanze, L., Galera, L., Holl, D., Kleinen, T., Kutzbach, L., Rehder, Z. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Sensitivity of Arctic CH4 emissions to landscape wetness diminished by atmospheric feedbacks. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01715-3 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • de Vrese, P., Georgievski, G., Gonzalez Rouco, J., Notz, D., Stacke, T., Steinert, N., Wilkenskjeld, S. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Representation of soil hydrology in permafrost regions may explain large part of inter-model spread in simulated Arctic and Subarctic climate. The Cryosphere, 17, 2095-2118. doi:10.5194/tc-17-2095-2023 [publisher-version]
  • Dunkl, I., Lovenduski, N., Collalti, A., Arora, V., Ilyina, T. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Gross primary productivity and the predictability of CO2: more uncertainty in what we predict than how well we predict it. Biogeosciences, 20, 3523-3538. doi:10.5194/bg-20-3523-2023 [pre-print][supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Forster, P., Smith, C., Walsh, T., Lamb, W., Palmer, M., von Schuckmann, K., Trewin, B., Allen, M., Andrew, R., Birt, A., Borger, A., Boyer, T., Broersma, J., Cheng, L., Dentener, F., Friedlingstein, P., Gillett, N., Gutiérrez, J., Gütschow, J., Hauser, M., Hall, B., Ishii, M., Jenkins, S., Lamboll, R., Lan, X., Lee, J.-Y., Morice, C., Kadow, C., Kennedy, J., Killick, R., Minx, J., Naik, V., Peters, G., Pirani, A., Pongratz, J., Ribes, A., Rogelj, J., Rosen, D., Schleussner, C.-F., Seneviratne, S., Szopa, S., Thorne, P., Rohde, R., Rojas Corradi, M., Schumacher, D., Vose, R., Zickfeld, K., Zhang, X., Masson-Delmotte, V. & Zhai, P. (2023). Indicators of global climate change 2022: Annual update of large-scale indicators of the state of the climate system and the human influence. Earth System Science Data, 15, 2295-2327. doi:10.5194/essd-15-2295-202 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Friedlingstein, P., O'Sullivan, M., Jones, M., Andrew, R., Bakker, D., Hauck, J., Landschützer, P., Le Quéré, C., Luijkx, I., Peters, G., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Schwingshackl, C., Sitch, S., Canadell, J., Ciais, P., Jackson, R., Alin, S., Anthoni, P., Barbero, L., Bates, N., Becker, M., Bellouin, N., Decharme, B., Bopp, L., Brasika, I., Cadule, P., Chamberlain, M., Chandra, N., Chau, T.-T., Chevallier, F., Chini, L., Cronin, M., Dou, X., Enyo, K., Evans, W., Falk, S., Feely, R., Feng, L., Ford, D., Gasser, T., Ghattas, J., Gkritzalis, T., Grassi, G., Gregor, L., Gruber, N., Gürses, Ö., Harris, I., Hefner, M., Heinke, J., Houghton, R., Hurtt, G., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Jacobson, A., Jain, A., Jarníková, T., Jersild, A., Jiang, F., Jin, Z., Joos, F., Kato, E., Keeling, R., Kennedy, D., Goldewijk, K., Knauer, J., Korsbakken, J., Körtzinger, A., Lan, X., Lefèvre, N., Li, H., Liu, J., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Marland, G., Mayot, N., McGuire, P., McKinley, G., Meyer, G., Morgan, E., Munro, D., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Omar, A., Ono, T., Paulsen, M., Pierrot, D., Pocock, K., Poulter, B., Powis, C., Rehder, G., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Rosan, T., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Smallman, T., Smith, S., Sospedra-Alfonso, R., Sun, Q., Sutton, A., Sweeney, C., Takao, S., Tans, P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tsujino, H., Tubiello, F., van der Werf, G., van Ooijen, E., Wanninkhof, R., Watanabe, M., Wimart-Rousseau, C., Yang, D., Yang, X., Yuan, W., Yue, X., Zaehle, S., Zeng, J. & Zheng, B. (2023). Global Carbon Budget 2023. Earth System Science Data, 15, 5301-5369. doi:10.5194/essd-15-5301-2023 [publisher-version]
  • Grassi, G., Schwingshackl, C., Gasser, T., Houghton, R., Sitch, S., Canadell, J., Cescatti, A., Ciais, P., Federici, S., Friedlingstein, P., Kurz, W., Sanchez, M., Viñas, R., Alkama, R., Ceccherini, G., Kato, E., Kennedy, D., Knauer, J., Korosuo, A., McGrath, M., Nabel, J., Poulter, B., Rossi, S., Walker, A., Yuan, W., Yue, X. & Pongratz, J. (2023). Harmonising the land-use flux estimates of global models and national inventories for 2000–2020. Earth System Science Data, 15, 1093-1114. doi:10.5194/essd-15-1093-2023 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Hagemann, S. & Stacke, T. (2023). Complementing ERA5 and E-OBS with high-resolution river discharge over Europe. Oceanologia, 65, 230-248. doi:10.1016/j.oceano.2022.07.003 [publisher-version]
  • Hohenegger, C., Korn, P., Linardakis, L., Redler, R., Schnur, R., Adamidis, P., Bao, J., Bastin, S., Behravesh, M., Bergemann, M., Biercamp, J., Bockelmann, H., Brokopf, R., Brüggemann, N., Casaroli, L., Chegini, F., Datseris, G., Esch, M., George, G., Giorgetta, M., Gutjahr, O., Haak, H., Hanke, M., Ilyina, T., Jahns, T., Jungclaus, J., Kern, M., Klocke, D., Kluft, L., Kölling, T., Kornblueh, L., Kosukhin, S., Kroll, C., Lee, J., Mauritsen, T., Mehlmann, C., Mieslinger, T., Naumann, A., Paccini, L., Peinado, A., Praturi, D., Putrasahan, D., Rast, S., Riddick, T., Roeber, N., Schmidt, H., Schulzweida, U., Schütte, F., Segura, H., Shevchenko, R., Singh, V., Specht, M., Stephan, C., von Storch, J., Vogel, R., Wengel, C., Winkler, M., Ziemen, F., Marotzke, J. & Stevens, B. (2023). ICON-Sapphire: simulating the components of the Earth System and their interactions at kilometer and subkilometer scales. Geoscientific Model Development, 16, 779-811. doi:10.5194/gmd-16-779-2023 [publisher-version]
  • Ito, A., Li, T., Melton, J., Tian, H., Kleinen, T., Wang, W., Zhang, Z., Joos, F., Ciais, P., Hopcroft, P., Beerling, D., Liu, X., Zhuang, Q., Zhu, Q., Peng, C., Cheng, K.-Y., Fluet-Chouinard, E., McNicol, G., Patra, P., Poulter, S., Sitch, B., Riley, W. & Zhu, Q. (2023). Cold-season methane fluxes simulated by GCP-CH4 models. Geophysical Research Letters, 50: e2023GL103037. doi:10.1029/2023GL103037 [publisher-version]
  • Jones, M., Peters, G., Gasser, T., Andrew, R., Schwingshackl, C., Gütschow, J., Houghton, R., Friedlingstein, P., Pongratz, J. & Le Quéré, C. (2023). National contributions to climate change due to historical emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide since 1850. Scientific Data, 10: 155. doi:10.1038/s41597-023-02041-1 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Gromov, S., Steil, B. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Atmospheric methane since the last glacial maximum was driven by wetland sources. Climate of the Past, 19, 1081-1099. doi:10.5194/cp-19-1081-2023 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Köhl, M., Pagnone, A., Brovkin, V. & Neuburger, M. (2023). Physical process assessments - Amazon Forest dieback. In Engels, A., Marotzke, J., Gonçalves Gresse, E., López-Rivera, A., Pagnone, A. & Wilkens, J. (Eds.), Hamburg Climate Futures Outlook 2023: The plausibility of a 1.5°C limit to global warming - social drivers and physical processes (pp.152-157). Hamburg: Cluster of Excellence Climate, Climatic Change, and Society (CLICCS). [publisher-version]
  • Kutzbach, L., Brovkin, V., Beer, C., Kleinen, T., de Vrese, P., Rödder, S. & Knoblauch, C. (2023). Physical process assessments - Permafrost thaw: effects on the remaining carbon budget. In Engels, A., Marotzke, J., Gonçalves Gresse, E., López-Rivera, A., Pagnone, A. & Wilkens , A. (Eds.), Hamburg Climate Futures Outlook 2023: The plausibility of a 1.5°C limit to global warming - social drivers and physical processes (pp.140-144). Hamburg: Cluster of Excellence Climate, Climatic Change, and Society (CLICCS). [publisher-version]
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  • Arora, V., Boer, G., Friedlingstein, P., Eby, M., Jones, C., Christian, J., Bonan, G., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Cadule, P., Hajima, T., Ilyina, T., Lindsay, K., Tjiputra, J. & Wu, T. (2013). Carbon-concentration and carbon-1 climate feedbacks in CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Climate, 26, 5289 -5314. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00494.1 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Boysen, L., Arora, V., Boisier, J., Cadule, P., Chini, L., Claussen, M., Friedlingstein, P., Gayler, V., van den Hurk, B., Hurtt, G., Jones, C., Kato, E., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Pacifico, F., Pongratz, J. & Weiss, M. (2013). Effect of anthropogenic land-use and land cover changes on climate and land carbon storage in CMIP5 projections for the 21st century. Journal of Climate, 26, 6859-6881. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00623.1 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Boysen, L., Raddatz, T., Gayler, V., Loew, A. & Claussen, M. (2013). Evaluation of vegetation cover and land-surface albedo in MPI-ESM CMIP5 simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5, 48-57. doi:10.1029/2012MS000169 [publisher-version]
  • Claussen, M., Selent, K., Brovkin, V., Raddatz, T. & Gayler, V. (2013). Impact of CO2 and climate on Last Glacial maximum vegetation – a factor separation. Biogeosciences, 10, 3593-3604. doi:10.5194/bg-10-3593-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Claussen, M., Bathiany, S., Brovkin, V. & Kleinen, T. (2013). Simulated climate-vegetation interaction in semi-arid regions affected by plant diversity. Nature Geoscience, 6, 954-958. doi:10.1038/ngeo1962
  • Coulthard, T., Ramirez, J., Barton, N., Rogerson, M. & Bruecher, T. (2013). Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial ? Implications for human migration through Africa. PLoS One, 8: e74834. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074834 [publisher-version]
  • Cresto-Aleina, F., Brovkin, V., Muster, S., Boike, J., Kutzbach, L., Sachs, T. & Zuyev, S. (2013). A stochastic model for the polygonal tundra based on Poisson-Voronoi diagrams. Earth System Dynamics, 4, 187-198. doi:10.5194/esd-4-187-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Cresto-Aleina, F., Baudena, M., D'Andrea, F. & Provenzale, A. (2013). Multiple equilibria on planet dune: Climate-vegetation dynamics on a sandy planet. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 65: 17662. doi:10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.17662 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Dass, P., Müller, C., Brovkin, V. & Cramer, W. (2013). Can bioenergy cropping compensate high carbon emissions from large-scale deforestation of mid to high latitudes?. Earth System Dynamics, 4, 409-424. doi:10.5194/esd-4-409-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Giorgetta, M., Jungclaus, J., Reick, C., Legutke, S., Bader, J., Böttinger, M., Brovkin, V., Crueger, T., Esch, M., Fieg, K., Glushak, K., Gayler, V., Haak, H., Hollweg, H.-D., Ilyina, T., Kinne, S., Kornblueh, L., Matei, D., Mauritsen, T., Mikolajewicz, U., Mueller, W., Notz, D., Pithan, F., Raddatz, T., Rast, S., Redler, R., Roeckner, E., Schmidt, H., Schnur, R., Segschneider, J., Six, K., Stockhause, M., Timmreck, C., Wegner, J., Widmann, H., Wieners, K.-H., Claussen, M., Marotzke, J. & Stevens, B. (2013). Climate and carbon cycle changes from 1850 to 2100 in MPI-ESM simulations for the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5, 572-597. doi:10.1002/jame.20038 [publisher-version]
  • Jones, C., Robertson, E., Arora, V., Friedlingstein, P., Shevliakova, E., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Hajima, T., Kato, E., Kawamiya, M., Liddicoat, S., Lindsay, K., Reick, C., Roelandt, C., Segschneider, J. & Tjiputra, J. (2013). 21st century compatible CO2 emissions and airborne fraction simulated by CMIP5 earth system models under 4 representative concentration pathways. Journal of Climate, 26, 4398 -4413. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00554.1 [publisher-version]
  • Joos, F., Roth, R., Fuglevestvedt, J., Peters, G., Enting, I., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V., Burke, M., Eby, M., Edwards, N., Friedrich, T., Frölicher, T., Halloran, P., Holden, P., Jones, C., Kleinen, T., Mackenzie, F., Matsumoto, K., Meinshausen, M., Plattner, G.-K., Reisinger, A., Segschneider, J., Shaffer, G., Steinacher, M., Strassmann, K., Tanaka, K., Timmermann, A. & Weaver, A. (2013). Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics:a multi-model analysis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 2793-2825. doi:10.5194/acp-13-2793-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Kehrwald, N., Whitlock, C., Barbante, C., Brovkin, V., Daniau, A.-L., Kaplan, J., Marlon, J., Power, M., Thonicke, K. & van der Werf, G. (2013). Recent advancements in wildfire research: linking paleofire data, modern observations and modeling. Eos Transactions, 94, 421-423. doi:10.1002/2013EO460001 [publisher-version]
  • Melton, J., Wania, R., Hodson, E., Poulter, B., Ringeval, B., Spahni, R., Bohn, T., Avis, C., Beerling, D., Chen, G., Eliseev, A., Denisov, S., Hopcroft, P., Lettenmaier, D., Riley, W., Singarayer, J., Subin, Z., Tian, H., Zürcher, S., Brovkin, V., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Yu, Z. & Kaplan, J. (2013). Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model intercomparison project (WETCHIMP). Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788. doi:10.5194/bg-10-753-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Notz, D., Brovkin, V. & Heimann, M. (2013). Arctic: uncertainties in methane link. Nature, 500, 529-529. doi:10.1038/500529b
  • Reick, C., Raddatz, T., Brovkin, V. & Gayler, V. (2013). Representation of natural and anthropogenic land cover change in MPI-ESM. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5, 459-482. doi:10.1002/jame.20022 [publisher-version]
  • Schuldt, R., Brovkin, V., Kleinen, T. & Winderlich, J. (2013). Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands: an earth system model approach. Biogeosciences, 10, 1659-1674. doi:10.5194/bg-10-1659-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Schuur, E., Abbott, B., Bowden, W., Brovkin, V., Camill, P., Canadell, J., Chanton, J., Chapin III, F., Christensen, T., Clais, P., Crosby, B., Czimczik, C., Grosse, G., Harden, J., Hayes, D., Hugelius, G., Jastrow, J., Jones, J., Kleinen, T., Koven, C., Krinner, G., Kuhry, P., Lawrence, D., McGuire, A., Natali, S., O'Donnell, J., Ping, C., Riley, W., Rinke, A., Romanovsky, V., Sannel, A., Schädel, C., Schaefer, K., Sky, J., Subin, Z., Tarnocal, C., Turetsky, M., Waldrop, M., Walther Anthony, K., Wickland, K., Wilson, C. & Zimov, S. (2013). Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change. Climatic Change, 119, 359-374. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0730-7 [publisher-version]
  • Segschneider, J., Beitsch, A., Timmreck, C., Brovkin, V., Ilyina, T., Jungclaus, J., Lorenz, S., Six, K. & Zanchettin, D. (2013). Impact of an extremely large magnitude volcanic eruption on the global climate and carbon cycle estimated from ensemble Earth System Model simulations. Biogeosciences, 10, 669-687. doi:10.5194/bg-10-669-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Seneviratne, S., Wilhelm, M., Stanelle, T., van den Hurk, B., Hagemann, S., Berg, A., Cheruy, F., Higgins, M., Meier, A., Brovkin, V., Claussen, M., Dufresne, J.-L., Findell, K., Lawrence, D., Malyshev, S. & Smith, B. (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 5212-5217. doi:10.1002/grl.50956 [publisher-version]
  • Verheijen, L., Brovkin, V., Aerts, R., Bönish, G., Cornelissen, J., Kattge, J., Reich, P., Wright, I. & van Bodegom, P. (2013). Impacts of trait variation through observed trait-climate relationships on performance of a representative Earth System Model: a conceptual analysis. Biogeosciences, 10, 5497 -5515. doi:10.5194/bg-10-5497-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Wania, R., Melton, J., Hodson, E., Poulter, B., Ringeval, B., Spahni, R., Bohn, T., Avis, C., Chen, G., Eliseev, A., Hopcroft, P., Riley, W., Subin, Z., Tian, H., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Yu, Z., Singarayer, J., Zürcher, S., Lettenmaier, D., Beerling, D., Denisov, S., Prigent, C., Papa, F. & Kaplan, J. (2013). Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: methodology of a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP). Geoscientific Model Development, 6, 617-641. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-617-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Wirth, C., Cornwell, W., Cornelissen, J. & Kattge, J. (2012). Plant-driven variation in decomposition rates improves projections of global litter stock distribution. Biogeosciences, 9, 565-576. doi:10.5194/bg-9-565-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Ganopolski, A., Archer, D. & Munhoven, G. (2012). Glacial CO2 cycle as a succession of key physical and biogeochemical processes. Climate of the Past, 8, 251-264. doi:10.5194/cp-8-251-2012 [publisher-version]
  • de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Boisier, J., Pitman, A., Bonan, G., Brovkin, V., Cruz, F., Delire, C., Gayler, V., van den Hurk, B., Lawrence, P., van der Molen, M., Muller, C., Reick, C., Strengers, B. & Voldoire, A. (2012). Determining robust impacts of land-use-induced land cover changes on surface climate over North America and Eurasia: Results from the first set of LUCID experiments. Journal of Climate, 25, 3261-3281. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00338.1
  • Goll, D., Brovkin, V., Parida, B., Reick, C., Kattge, J., Reich, P., van Bodegom, P. & Niinemets, Ü. (2012). Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Biogeosciences, 9, 3547-3569. doi:10.5194/bg-9-3547-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V. & Schuldt, R. (2012). A dynamic model of wetland extent and peat accumulation: Results for the Holocene. Biogeosciences, 9, 235-248. doi:10.5194/bg-9-235-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Pitman, A., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Avila, F., Alexander, L., Boisier, J.-P., Brovkin, V., Delire, C., Cruz, F., Donat, M., Gayler, V., van den Hurk, B., Reick, C. & Voldoire, A. (2012). Effects of land cover change on temperature. Earth System Dynamics, 3, 213-231. doi:10.5194/esd-3-213-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Port, U., Brovkin, V. & Claussen, M. (2012). The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change. Earth System Dynamics, 3, 233-243. doi:10.5194/esd-3-233-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Schneider von Deimling, T., Meinshausen, M., Levermann, A., Huber, V., Frieler, K., Lawrence, D. & Brovkin, V. (2012). Estimating the near-surface permafrost-carbon feedback on global warming. Biogeosciences, 9, 649-665. doi:10.5194/bg-9-649-2012 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Timmreck, C., Graf, H.-F., Zanchettin, D., Hagemann, S., Kleinen, T. & Krüger, K. (2012). Climate response to the Toba super-eruption: regional changes. Quaternary International, 258, 30-44. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.10.008
  • Tzedakis, P., Wolff, E., Skinner, L., Brovkin, V., Hodell, D., McManus, J. & Raynaud, D. (2012). Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?. Climate of the Past, 8, 1473-1485. doi:10.5194/cp-8-1473-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Varma, V., Prange, M., Merkel, U., Kleinen, T., Lohmann, G., Pfeiffer, M., Renssen, H., Wagner, A., Wagner, S. & Schulz, M. (2012). Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models. Climate of the Past, 8, 391-402. doi:10.5194/cp-8-391-2012 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Andreev, A., Schirrmeister, L., Tarasov, P., Ganopolski, A., Brovkin, V., Siegert, C., Wetterich, S. & Hubberten, H.-W. (2011). Vegetation and climate history in the Laptev Sea region (Arctic Siberia) during Late Quaternary inferred from pollen records. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2182-2199. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.12.026
  • Bouttes, N., Paillard, D., Roche, D., Brovkin, V. & Bopp, L. (2011). Last glacial maximum CO₂ and δ13C successfully reconciled. Geophysical Research Letters, 38: L02705. doi:10.1029/2010GL044499 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V. (2011). Indelible footprint. Nature Geoscience, 4, 496. doi:10.1038/ngeo1220
  • Kleinen, T., Tarasov, P., Brovkin, V., Andreev, A. & Stebich, M. (2011). Comparison of modeled and reconstructed changes in forest cover through the past 8000 years: Eurasian perspective. The Holocene, 21(5), 723-734. doi:10.1177/0959683610386980
  • Otto, J., Raddatz, T. & Claussen, M. (2011). Strength of forest-albedo feedback in mid-Holocene climate simulations. Climate of the Past, 7, 1027-1039. doi:10.5194/cp-7-1027-2011 [publisher-version]
  • Palastanga, V., van der Schrier, G., Weber, S., Kleinen, T., Briffa, K. & Osborn, T. (2011). Atmosphere and ocean dynamics: contributors to the European Little Ice Age ?. Climate Dynamics, 36, 973-987. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0751-0 [publisher-version]
  • Rietkerk, M., Brovkin, V., van Bodegom, P., Claussen, M., Dekker, S., Dijkstra, H., Goryachkin, S., Kabat, P., van Nes, E., Neutel, A.-M., Nicholson, S., Nobre, C., Petoukhov, V., Provenzale, A., Scheffer, M. & Seneviratne, S. (2011). Local ecosystem feedbacks and critical transitions in the climate. Ecological Complexity, 8(3), 223-228. doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2011.03.001
  • Vamborg, F., Brovkin, V. & Claussen, M. (2011). The effect of dynamic background albedo scheme on Sahel/Sahara precipitation during the Mid-Holocene. Climate of the Past, 7, 117-131. doi:10.5194/cp-7-117-2011 [publisher-version]
  • Bathiany, S., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V., Raddatz, T. & Gayler, V. (2010). Combined biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of large-scale forest cover changes in the MPI earth system model. Biogeosciences, 7, 1383-1399. doi:10.5194/bg-7-1383-2010 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Lorenz, S., Jungclaus, J., Raddatz, T., Timmreck, C., Reick, C., Segschneider, J. & Six, K. (2010). Sensitivity of a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to large volcanic eruptions. Tellus B, 62, 674-681. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00471.x [publisher-version]
  • Dekker, S., de Boer, H., Brovkin, V., Fraedrich, K., Wassen, M. & Rietkerk, M. (2010). Biogeophysical feedbacks trigger shifts in the modelled vegetation-atmosphere system at multiple scales. Biogeosciences, 7, 1237-1245. doi:10.5194/bg-7-1237-2010 [publisher-version]
  • Jungclaus, J., Lorenz, S., Timmreck, C., Reick, C., Brovkin, V., Six, K., Segschneider, J., Giorgetta, M., Crowley, T., Pongratz, J., Krivova, N., Vieira, L., Solanki, S., Klocke, D., Botzet, M., Esch, M., Gayler, V., Haak, H., Raddatz, T., Roeckner, E., Schnur, R., Widmann, H., Claussen, M., Stevens, B. & Marotzke, J. (2010). Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium. Climate of the Past, 6, 723-737. doi:10.5194/cp-6-723-2010 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V., von Bloh, W., Archer, D. & Munhoven, G. (2010). Holocene carbon cycle dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters, 37: L2705. doi:10.1029/2009GL041391 [publisher-version]
  • Archer, D., Eby, M., Brovkin, V., Ridgwell, A., Long, C., Mikolajewicz, U., Caldeira, K., Matsumoto, K., Munhoven, G., Montenegro, A. & Tokos, K. (2009). Atmospheric lifetime of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 37, 117-134.
  • Archer, D., Buffet, B. & Brovkin, V. (2009). Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 20596-20601. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800885105 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Petoukhov, V., Claussen, M., Bauer, E., Archer, D. & Jaeger, C. (2009). Geoengineering climate by stratospheric sulfur injections: Earth system vulnerability to technological failure. Climatic Change, 92, 243-259. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9490-1 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Raddatz, T., Reick, C., Claussen, M. & Gayler, V. (2009). Global biogeophysical interactions between forest and climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 36: L07405. doi:10.1029/2009GL037543 [publisher-version]
  • Churkina, G., Brovkin, V., von Bloh, W., Trusilova, K., Jung, M. & Dentener, F. (2009). Synergy of rising nitrogen depositions and atmospheric CO2 on land carbon uptake moderately offsets global warming. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23: GB4027. doi:10.1029/2008GB003291 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Osborn, T. & Briffa, K. (2009). Sensitivity of climate response to variations in freshwater hosing location. Ocean Dynamics, 59, 509-521. doi:10.1007/s10236-009-0189-2 [publisher-version]
  • Otto, J., Raddatz, T. & Claussen, M. (2009). Climate variability-induced uncertainty in mid-Holocene atmosphere-ocean-vegetation feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, 36: L23710. doi:10.1029/2009GL041457 [publisher-version]
  • Otto, J., Raddatz, T., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V. & Gayler, V. (2009). Separation of atmosphere-ocean-vegetation feedbacks and synergies for mid-Holocene climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 36: L09701. doi:10.1029/2009GL037482. [publisher-version]
  • Pitman, A., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Cruz, F., Davin, E., Bonan, G., Brovkin, V., Claussen, M., Delire, C., Ganzefeld, L., Gayler, V., van den Hurk, B., Lawrence, P., van der Molen, M., Müller, C., Reick, C., Seneviratne, S., Strengers, B. & Voldoire, A. (2009). Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: First results from the LUCID intercomparison study. Geophysical Research Letters, 36: L14814. doi:10.1029/2009GL039076 [publisher-version]
  • Scheffer, M., Bascompte, J., Brock, W., Brovkin, V., Carpenter, S., Dakos, V., Held, H., van Nes, E., Rietkerk, M. & Sugihara, G. (2009). Early-warning signals for critical transitions [Review]. Nature, 461(7260), 53-59. doi:10.1038/nature08227
  • Tzedakis, P., Raynaud, D., McManus, J., Berger, A., Brovkin, V. & Kiefer, T. (2009). Interglacial diversity. Nature Geoscience, 2, 751-755. doi:10.1038/ngeo660
  • Archer, D. & Brovkin, V. (2008). Millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO₂. Climatic Change, 90, 283-297. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9413-1 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V. & Claussen, M. (2008). Comment on “Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years". Science, 322, 1326b-1326b. doi:10.1126/science.1163381
  • Brovkin, V., Cherkinsky, A. & Gorachkin, S. (2008). Estimating soil carbon turnover using radiocarbon data: a case study for European Russia. Ecological Modelling, 216, 178-187. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.03.018
  • Cornwell, W., Johannes, H., Cornelissen, J., Amatangelo, K., Dorrepaal, E., Eviner, V., Godoy, O., Hobbie, S., Hoorens, B., Kurokawa, H., Harguindeguy, N., Quested, H., Santiago, L., Wardle, D., Wright, I., Aerts, R., Allison, S., van Bodegom, P., Brovkin, V., Chatain, A., Callaghan, T., Diaz, S., Garnier, E., Gurvich, D., Kazakou, E., Klein, J., Read, J., Reich, P., Soudzilovskaia, N., Vaieretti, V. & Westoby, M. (2008). The leaf economic spectrum drives litter decomposition within regional floras worldwide. Ecology Letters, 11, 1065-1071. doi:10.111/j.1461-0248.2008.01219.x
  • Dakos, V., Scheffer, M., van Nes, E., Brovkin, V., Petoukhov, V. & Held, H. (2008). Slowing down as an early warning signal for abrupt climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 14308-14312. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802430105 [publisher-version]
  • Jaeger, C., Schellnhuber, H. & Brovkin, V. (2008). Stern's review and Dam's fallacy. Climatic Change, 89, 207-218. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9436-7 [publisher-version]


Prof. Dr. Victor Brovkin

Group leader
Phone: +49 (0)40 41173-339
victor.brovkin@we dont want

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Department Climate Dynamics

We aim to advance our fundamental understanding of global climate dynamics by employing a unique research strategy that involves systematically combining a hierarchy of models with principle-based theories. Our focus centers on exploring the mechanisms that govern large-scale climate change patterns across various regions ...

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