The Nobel Prize in Physics 2021

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2021 “for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex physical systems” with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann, “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming” and the other half to Giorgio Parisi, “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales”.

The Human Fingerprint in the Climate System — About the pioneer of climate research Klaus Hasselmann

Roland Wengenmayr

Today, human-induced climate change is common knowledge. But, how do we know that we are the ones causing it? And that we are heating up the Earth more and more with our greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide? We largely owe this knowledge to the pioneering work of Klaus Hasselmann and Syukuro Manabe. Both were honored with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2021 "for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming," one half of which they shared [Nobelpreis2021]. With their pioneering work, for which they had to develop and introduce completely new concepts, these two scientists played a leading role in founding modern climate research.

A crucial requirement for today's understanding of global warming is the knowledge of how the atmosphere reacts to a rising carbon dioxide concentration. "Suki" Manabe was able to show with early computer simulations how the radiation budget and convection, the circulation of air masses in the atmosphere, interact and cause the thermometer to rise slowly. But how do you trace the human "fingerprint" in the chaotic, chance-dominated climate system? Klaus Hasselmann succeeded with a criminalistic touch. The metaphor of criminology fits perfectly here, because a fingerprint has a characteristic, unmistakable pattern. In that same way, a certain pattern in the behavior of the climate system ultimately leads to us humans — as perpetrators, as we must admit.

Bjorn Stevens, director at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, as whose founding director Klaus Hasselmann was appointed in 1975, compares Hasselmann's crucial work to the discovery of gravitational waves. The extremely weak signal of two black holes tumbling into each other in the form of minimal oscillations in space-time could only be found because it had been possible to calculate it theoretically beforehand. This allowed astrophysics to search specifically for such tiny signals in the gigantic noise of the cosmos. This was achieved for the first time in 2016, a hundred years after Albert Einstein had predicted gravitational waves.

KLaus Hasselmann mit dem Nobelpreis Diplom
© Nobel Prize Outreach. Photo: Bernhard Ludewig

In a very similar way, Klaus Hasselmann's concept was in principle based on looking for a certain, pre-estimated pattern in the noise of the climate system. Here, too, there is a connection to Einstein, via the so-called Brownian motion of molecules. In 1905, Einstein succeeded in physically describing the trembling motion of teeming molecules in a warm liquid by capturing their collective behavior with the tools of statistics. This was quite revolutionary in physics at the time.

It was in this spirit that Klaus Hasselmann introduced the "stochastic" methodology to climate research. Stochastics is a field of mathematics that describes systems using the tools of statistics in which chance plays a central role. Sounds pretty abstract, so let's get specific. In the climate system, processes interact whose time scales range from seconds to extremely slow, that is, centuries and even longer. At the fast end rages the weather that is characterized by a certain degree of chaos. It is no coincidence that a meteorologist, the American Edward Lorenz, developed the foundations of chaos theory in the 1960s. This element of chaos in weather makes weather forecasts difficult, especially when they look beyond a week into the future. It will never be possible to predict exactly what the weather will be like in Hamburg on 1st October three years from now.

However, climate models can now with reasonable confidence predict what an average autumn in Hamburg will be like in 30 years' time. And this is due to the enormously lethargic actor at the other end of the time scale, the world's oceans. Water has a large so-called heat capacity, which is why it takes so long to finally bring a liter of water to the boil for tea. Because all of the oceans together form a huge body of water distributed around the Earth, it reacts very slowly to changes in the atmosphere. If the atmosphere tends to get warmer, the oceans buffer this as "climate memory" for a long time, at least until the water has warmed up accordingly.

In 1976, Klaus Hasselmann cracked the problem of the many time scales in a first pioneering act by considering the weather as noise and tackling it with stochastic means — in the spirit of Einstein's approach to get a mathematical grip on Brownian motion. This allowed him to address a previously unanswered question: What causes natural climate variability? At the time, the widely shared view was that external drivers were the causes of climate variability, including changes in solar activity or large volcanic eruptions. Hasselmann could now show that the noise of the weather alone is enough to cause long-term climate fluctuations. Accordingly, the climate is permanently changing on its own, without any "kick" from the outside.

We can imagine this by picturing a drunken man who wants to go home from the pub with his dog. The man is in a state where he has lost his orientation. The young, untrained dog takes advantage of this passivity and runs erratically back and forth in all directions on the leash, because the world smells equally interesting everywhere. Consequently, he drags his staggering master sometimes here, sometimes there, with the result that the odd couple obviously can't get away from the spot.

The dog embodies the noise in the weather, thus the chaos part, and the master the climate: The man reacts very sluggishly to the movements of the wild dog, but under its impulses he then stumbles a little here, a little there. So, the movement of the master is caused only by the random running around of the dog. It is exactly such a connection that Hasselmann could show in his work of 1976: The "jolts" of the noise in the weather alone cause the climate to change — so this happens only from within this system, without any external influence.

As a next step, let us now imagine that we, as observers, expect the following: In his alcohol-fogged brain, it does dawn upon the man that he actually wants to go home. We know approximately where he lives. So, the man will try to move slowly in the direction of home. Even though he has great difficulty, he manages to direct the wild dog in the desired direction in tiny steps. However, this shift of the involuntary pair dance is so subtle that this signal only becomes recognizable if you know exactly where to look for it in the turmoil. But how do you find it?

Such metaphors always have their limits when abstract mathematical work is involved. But this is roughly how Hasselmann's second feat can be illustrated. Here, the road home symbolizes the long-term tendency of the climate to become warmer overall, for example, and the weak will of the dog owner symbolizes the influence of humans on the climate system. Hasselmann's stochastic method is equivalent to an analysis of the couple's wandering in a phase immediately after leaving the pub, in which no tendency in any particular direction actually seems to be discernible yet in the random movements. But Hasselmann can already detect such a tiny tendency with his method, because he knows where it is pointing and where he has to look for it in the enormous noise.

This is how one can imagine the detection of the human fingerprint in the climate system. Hasselmann's work, which laid out the basic concept for this, was published as early as 1979, but it took until the mid-1990s for a team led by Hasselmann to identify this fingerprint with certainty. This concept evolved into what is now an important scientific field of climate research, dedicated to the "detection and attribution" of climate change.

Jochem Marotzke, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, however, points out that there was a competitor for Hasselmann's first work, with both scientists apparently unaware of their respective work. The American Cecil "Chuck" Leith had simultaneously and independently developed what Marotzke considered an equivalent concept to Hasselmann's stochastic climate model [Marotzke2021]. "So, if you focus on the stochastic climate models, you would definitely have to discuss Chuck Leith's contribution as well," Marotzke feels, "That's where I might differ from others in my assessment of what's worthy of a Nobel Prize." Marotzke's intention is not to diminish Hasselmann's achievement, but simply to point out in a fair manner that two researchers have come up with comparable ideas without knowing about each other. This happens quite often when something new is in the air.

"But his work on the 'fingerprint' makes Hasselmann a solitaire!", Marotzke emphasizes what he sees as the Hamburg scientist's outstanding achievement: "If you look at this publication from 1979 — this comes absolutely out of nowhere!" That this achievement alone is worthy of a Nobel Prize is also shown by the history of the creation of the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (IPCC).

"Much of the IPCC is really constructed around the framework that Hasselmann has set," Bjorn Stevens points out, " It's in the increasingly strong adjectives used by the IPCC from one report to the next to describe the likelihood of human influence on the climate." The IPCC's first assessment report in 1990 still assumed that most of the observed temperature increase could be due to natural variations, while not ruling out human influence. The second report, in 1995, remained cautious, arguing that the scientific ability to quantify human influence on climate was still limited — yet there was every indication that there was a discernible human influence on global climate. The 2001 report then already made the more concrete statement that mankind was "likely" — with a probability of more than 66% —the cause of global warming since the middle of the 20th century. By the 4th Assessment Report of 2007, the finding was already "very likely," with over 90% probability, and by the 5th Report of 2013, "extremely likely," with 95 to 100% probability. "So, it's these adjectives that are getting more and more powerful," Stevens says: "All of these adjectives are coded probabilities that emerge from Hasselmann's work!" So, the "fingerprint" of humans in the climate system is emerging more and more clearly in these reports. The 2021 Sixth Assessment Report says: "It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean, and land." So, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is one hundred percent certain that humans are causing global warming.

This outstanding scientific achievement has also long been recognized by Hartmut Graßl. The long-time scientific companion and former director at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology stated as early as 1995 at a press conference in the presence of the then Federal Minister of Research: "The signal has been discovered". To the press present, he said, "If there is a binding agreement on this under international law, then I am sure that Klaus Hasselmann is a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Physics."

This prediction came true in 2021. It is important to note that Klaus Hasselmann and Syukuro Manabe received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their conceptual work, emphasizes Stevens. It is a misconception, he says, that this was in recognition of the development of climate models. "Modeling is a collective enterprise," he says. It's clear that many more contributors should have been considered in this case. The Nobel Prize in Physics could not possibly do justice to that, since it is limited to a maximum of three heads. But in a way, the Nobel Committee has already acknowledged the collective effort of model development by awarding the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize to the IPCC. Indirectly, Manabe and Hasselmann have also contributed to this Nobel Prize with their life's work.

Klaus Hasselmann and the beginning of climate research

At the desk in the Pavillion, 1989.
At the desk in the Pavillion, 1989. Credit: Hasselmann

Born on 25th October 1931, Klaus Hasselmann is one from the founding generation of modern climate research. It was not foreseeable during and after his studies of physics and mathematics at the Universität Hamburg that he would shape this field as one of the pioneers. Since the then fashionable fields of physics, such as quantum field theory, with their abstract concepts seemed too difficult to him, he sought a thesis in the field of fluid dynamics, with Professor Karl Wieghardt. There he came across a topic that was to shape his scientific life: the unsolved problem of turbulence calculation. Turbulence occurs as a phenomenon in many ways in liquids and gases, especially in the oceans and the atmosphere.

Through this research, Hasselmann came into contact with stochastics and so-called nonlinear processes. Nonlinear systems are characterized by the fact that they do not respond to a manipulation in a "rigid", linear way, but their response can, for example, be disproportionately strong. Thus, such a nonlinear bicycle would not accelerate as much as a normal bicycle when pedaled harder, just as the "linear" gear ratio would dictate, but would accelerate much faster. Such systems exist everywhere in nature. However, the physical formulas describing their behavior are difficult to solve exactly — usually only in more or less tricky approximation methods.

Hasselmann refined the mathematical toolbox he needed for this during his doctoral work at the University of Göttingen and at the Max Planck Institute for Flow Research there in 1955-57. He received his doctorate in 1957 and married the soon-to-be mathematician Susanne Barthe — with whom he would later also collaborate scientifically. During his subsequent assistantship with Wieghardt at what was then the Institute of Naval Architecture at the Universität Hamburg, he stumbled upon his first major research topic: ocean waves. The task was to calculate how ships react to waves.

Ocean waves consist of a superposition of many partial waves with different wavelengths. Consequently, in physical terms, they have a "spectrum", a mathematical distribution of different wavelengths. As a wave propagates, the energy stored in it shifts within this spectrum between the wavelengths involved. Thus, a choppy storm sea freshly stirred up by the wind becomes a long-wave old swell after some time. However, this energy exchange between different wavelengths is nonlinear, which made its calculation so difficult. Hasselmann, as a young researcher, succeeded in solving the problem with the help of a complicated, five-dimensional integral [Hasselmann1962].

This first feat attracted attention at a presentation in the U.S. and resulted in an offer from the eminent American-Austrian oceanographer Walter Munk. Hasselmann accepted and from 1961 to 1964 was first Assistant, then Associate Professor at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, USA. During this time, he also participated in a large-scale field experiment conducted by Munk in the Pacific Ocean. It investigated how waves generated by winds, over, say, the South Pacific reach Alaska as old swell.

The contact to Hamburg did not break off during this formative period. His habilitation followed there in 1963, and in the years that followed Hasselmann worked his way up to full professor at the Universität Hamburg. During his Hamburg years, he also sought new subject areas in which to apply his skills, which led him and his first research group temporarily into plasma physics, where he collaborated with his former fellow students Gerd Wibberenz and Wolfgang Kundt. Hasselmann also recruited his first own working group from Kundt's graduates.

From 1970 to 1972, he spent a second period in the USA, as a professor at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. During this time, the so-called "Sonderforschungsbereich 94“ ("Special Research Area 94” or SFB94 for short) was founded in Hamburg, and after his return in 1972, he became the spokesman of SFB94. This developed into a large-scale, international field experiment in the North Sea called JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project). It explored in great detail how waves are generated by wind and later become swells. The JONSWAP ocean wave spectrum measured in the process is still of great importance today. "Previously, it had been assumed that a steady wind would result in a fully mature swell," explains Dirk Olbers, who was a young researcher on the measurement campaign at the time: "But the JONSWAP spectrum showed that the swell never fully matured!" As a result, this spectrum is still used today as the "gold standard" in prediction models for sea state forecasting.

After 1972, Hasselmann became professor for theoretical geophysics in Hamburg. During this time, the president of the Max Planck Society, Reimar Lüst, contacted him and suggested that he become the future director of a Max Planck Institute dedicated to climate research. In 1975, Hasselmann became the founding director of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg. The term "climate research" still seemed too new as a scientific field at the time, so it was avoided in the institute's name as a matter of caution.

The choice of Hasselmann for such an important position was quite controversial because he did not originally come from the field of meteorology. It was clear to him that he would now have to deliver a scientific paper that showed him to be competent in the new field of research. To do this, he again drew on his profound knowledge of stochastics and nonlinear systems. He developed the theory of stochastic climate models introduced above and published it in 1976 [Hasselmann 1976]. This revolutionary work proved, as already explained, that the climate does not simply respond rigidly to external influences, but that it is variable by itself, the driving force being the "noise" in the weather.

In 1979, the famous paper showing how the "fingerprint" of man could be traced in the climate followed [Hasselmann 1979]. During this time, Hasselmann ensured that the institute grew by recruiting many young, talented scientists — at that time still predominantly male — and that it became too cramped on the two floors in the Hamburg Geomatikum. New premises were needed. So, a pavilion was built opposite the Geomatikum, a provisional arrangement that was then used much longer than originally intended and was demolished only in 2013.

During the first few years, computers did not yet play such a central role at the new Max Planck Institute. Of course, climate models were already being developed, but Hasselmann was initially concerned with establishing the scientific basis for climate research. This meant that work was still mainly done with pencil and paper. In the 1980s, however, it became clear that the models now to be developed had to be more complex and therefore required much more powerful computers. Since Max Planck Institutes were supposed to be lean and scientifically flexible, the solution was to establish a separate German Climate Computing Centre, the "Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum". Its funding was provided by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. With the tactical help of Hartmut Graßl, Hasselmann succeeded in bringing the DKRZ to Hamburg and became its first scientific director in 1988. The technical director of the DKRZ was one of his former junior researchers, Wolfgang Sell.

This period also saw a change in the statutes of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, driven by Hasselmann, which introduced a directorate of equals, with three leading scientists. Hartmut Graßl and Lennart Bengtsson, who had previously been director of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Reading, UK, became Hasselmann's first colleagues. This allowed him to hand over responsibility and concentrate more on his own research.

With the ever-improving data and models, Hasselmann's teams led by then-postdoc Gabriele Hegerl and former postdoc Ben Santer finally succeeded in a series of important papers to prove the "fingerprint" of human activity [Hasselmann1993, Hegerl1996, Santer1996, Hegerl1997, Hasselmann1997]. These scientific publications established that greenhouse gases emitted by humans are undoubtedly responsible for global warming as an observable signal.

In addition to climate research, Hasselmann was also enormously productive in other fields. Starting in the late 1970s, he was involved as a scientific advisor in the design of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 research satellite. This satellite was intended to measure ocean waves from orbit. It was launched in 1991 and provided valuable global data, which was analyzed by a team working for Hasselmann, among others.

Moreover, the ocean waves led to a joint research project with his wife. After a 15-year break because of their three children, Susanne Hasselmann had completed her interrupted degree in mathematics and now wanted to return to research. In a small team, the couple developed the wave model WAM (for Wave Model) [WAMgroup 1988]. This model was so successful that it is now used by many meteorological institutes around the world for operational sea state forecasts. The Hasselmanns' work therefore not only helps to keep ships on a safe course, the forecasts based on WAM have also become popular with the surfing community.

Klaus Hasselmann also never lost touch with the fundamental questions of physics. Through the mathematical methods he used, there were many cross-connections to other research areas in physics in any case. One example is the famous Feynman diagrams, which graphically describe the various interactions between elementary particles. Mathematically related to this are the interaction rules between colliding waves that Hasselmann had worked out.

On the occasion of his 60th birthday, to the surprise of the guests, he gave a lecture on a new particle physics theory on which he had been working for some time. This metron theory should overcome some fundamental weaknesses from which the existing physical quantum field theories suffer in Hasselmann's view. After his retirement in 1999, he devoted himself entirely to his Metron project, until today. But the great researcher who, with impressive intelligence and light-footedness, has spent his life switching extremely successfully between different fields of research — this is where he failed. The particle physics community still does not accept the Metron approach. In this respect, too, Hasselmann's career is somewhat reminiscent of that of Albert Einstein, who invested his last decades of research in vain in a field theory that failed to gain acceptance.

However, there is also a decisive difference in the lives of the two renowned scientists. Einstein became increasingly lonely in old age. Klaus Hasselmann, on the other hand, is supported by the large network of friendships he has built up over the course of many decades. And he is a family man. During the award ceremony for the Nobel Prize in Physics, which was held in a small circle only because of the Corona lockdown, Bjorn Stevens was amused to observe how Klaus Hasselmann much preferred to occupy himself with his great-grandchildren than to follow the ceremony.

The networker and „emperor“

If one follows not only the facts but also the comments, stories and anecdotes from the large circle of people who got to know Klaus Hasselmann more closely, then very striking character traits of the researcher emerge. This is especially true of the characteristics of an extraordinarily independent mind and a versatile, inquisitive thinker. Moreover, there is a rare fearlessness with which Hasselmann never flinched from the adventure of radically deviating from a supposedly predefined career path. A typical physicist of his generation would probably have ended up in particle physics, high-energy physics, and stayed there. In fact, Hasselmann has always been very interested in fundamental physics, as he demonstrated late in his career.

His scientific adventurousness is also reflected in the advice and impulses he gave to the young scientists around him. A suitable anecdote is told by Peter Lemke, who, among other things, was the first German to chair the joint steering committee of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and, until his retirement in 2014, headed the Department of Climate Sciences at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. For an expedition of the research vessel "Polarstern" planned for the summer of 1989, he was to replace the absentee leader of a research team on board. As a theoretician, however, he had doubts as to whether he should accept the offer, since it involved experiments, measurements. Since he was still employed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, he asked Klaus Hasselmann for advice. Hasselmann replied, "If I were you, it's obvious — go along and learn how to collect data and how to interpret it!" For Hasselmann, there was no question that Lemke should take this leap and grow from it, had he done so himself.

In any case, Hasselmann had no qualms about throwing young researchers into the deep end of what were for them new fields of research. His life's journey is accompanied by many anecdotes of doctoral students or postdocs who were sent around the world by Hasselmann as representatives and who then found themselves in high-profile rounds of the leading scientists in the field.

„He has always seen people's potential," says Dirk Olbers, who was one of a group of young graduate students of Professor Wolfgang Kundt whom Hasselmann "hijacked" after his return from Cambridge to set up his research in Hamburg, as he told von Storch [1, S. 48]. With JONSWAP, Hasselmann unceremoniously threw the physicist Olbers into the deep end of oceanography research. Later, Olbers became a professor and went to the Alfred Wegener Institute as a climate researcher, thus setting an example for the many successful scientific careers that Hasselmann has fostered.

This leads to Hasselmann's next outstanding character trait, that of the sociable networker, the humanitarian and — in a positive sense — also manhunter, who discovered talents with a fine intuition and knew how to win them over. Many of them he let go after an intensive period of cooperation. In the background and without their knowledge, he often ensured that they were strategically placed in attractive scientific positions. In this way, he wove a network that allowed intensive scientific exchange, to the benefit of all involved. Other talents remained and accompanied Hasselmann throughout their scientific lives. These include Ernst Maier-Reimer as a central figure at the institute. "He became the guru of numerical modeling," recalls Dirk Olbers. Maier-Reimer was also instrumental in developing the institute's first global climate model, which was, after the Princeton model, the second of its kind in the world at the time," says Olbers.

Of course, even a great scientist is occasionally wrong, as Olbers knows from his own experience. In the 1980s, Tim Barnett, one of Hasselmann's first doctoral students from his time in La Jolla, came to the institute as a guest. He brought with him 14 years of area-wide wind data from the Pacific Ocean, "a very unusual data set at the time," Olbers says. Mojib Latif, a young researcher at the institute, then came to Olbers with the idea of inputting that data into the institute's ocean model and seeing if it produced anomalies in ocean currents off America's coasts that had become known as El Niño. "Klaus Hasselmann was not enthusiastic about the suggestion," Olbers recalls, "but we did it anyway with Maier-Reimer, and the result was El Niño." With this work, Mojib Latif was able to launch his impressive scientific career, and Hasselmann was also quick to acknowledge the success. Together with Graßl, Latif also took on the task of communicating the climate issue to the public — something Hasselmann was happy to let them do. As a result, both of them became much better-known public figures than he was himself. Latif, who has also been president of the Academy of Sciences in Hamburg since 2021, is now Germany's best-known climate researcher.

Anyone with good arguments never had any problems with the emperor — the "Kaiser". This nickname goes back to Hasselmann's confident and friendly demeanor, with which he was able to win people over quickly. In von Storch's book [1, p. 144f], Ben Santer, who conducted research at the Max Planck Institute from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, recounts a joint flight with Hasselmann to a scientific meeting in Boulder, Colorado. On the international flight to Denver, Hasselmann asked the flight attendants if there were two quiet seats available in business class - they had to work on some important scientific research. With his incomparable confident manner, Hasselmann got the upgrade, even though they had both booked one class below. It was on this flight that Hasselmann drafted the foundations of his later "fingerprint" paper, which would appear in 1997 [2]. [Hasselmann 1997].

Hasselmann's sociability also included singing in choirs together with his wife. During his research stay in La Jolla it was a madrigal choir, and later in Hamburg the Altona Singakademie. Gerbrand Komen was also unceremoniously introduced to the latter by the Hasselmanns. Hasselmann had invited Komen to the institute as a guest for the summer of 1983, and due to a lack of housing, the Hasselmanns had accommodated him and his entire family in their house in Kayhude. After Komen's family had to go back to the Netherlands, he was brought into the choir by the Hasselmanns so that he would not miss his family so much. When he needed a black suit for a concert, Hasselmann lent him his own wedding suit, which fit perfectly.

This anecdote [1, p. 150] says a lot about Klaus Hasselmann as a friend and family man. His own family, however, did not always have an easy time with the hyperactive scientific nomad. In von Storch's book [1, p. 117ff], Susanne Hasselmann tells of a party in Hamburg at which each guest was supposed to introduce themselves with a drawing. Klaus Hasselmann drew himself as a man smoking a pipe and traveling the globe in a rocking chair. Susanne Hasselmann then added herself as an appendage, clutching the chair with one hand and dragging the three children and a suitcase behind her with the other. And yet, in retrospect, she describes the time at his side as "the richest life one could ever dream of".

Klaus Hasselmann's love of traveling and cosmopolitanism may also have its roots in his childhood. In 1934, his parents emigrated from the Nazis to England, where he spent his years at school. It was not until 1949 that the family returned to Hamburg. This shaped a citizen of the world for whom it was only natural to be on the move. "He was never there, always on the road," recounts Dirk Olbers: "And when he came back, he gave seminar lectures in which there was always something new." This stimulating atmosphere around Hasselmann, however, also demanded discipline, Olbers says: "You had to be careful to stay on your own topic." But this also meant that Hasselmann always brought new impulses into his working groups, keeping them well informed about the latest scientific trends.

Gabriele Hegerl, who today teaches as a professor for climate research at the University of Edinburgh and as a postdoc was significantly involved in Hasselmann's important "fingerprint" work, learned three essential practical things of life from him [1, p. 137ff]. These are listed here in the conclusion because they aptly describe Hasselmann's personality. The first lesson is accuracy in the preparation of scientific papers. Von Storch's book is full of anecdotes about how Hasselmann would pick apart drafts of scientific papers and have them rewritten until the last minute and until he was finally satisfied. This is seamlessly matched by lesson number two, to do important things "really well."

The third lesson is that research and life offer a wealth of possibilities. If one threatens to get stuck in one thing, one should try "something crazy." This describes another of Hasselmann's character traits, his optimism. This optimism also applies to humankind as a whole in challenging times. Hasselmann assumes that our species will not only acknowledge the problem of climate change, but also find solutions.

This article is based on interviews conducted by the author with companions and climate researchers, and in important passages on Hans von Storch's book "From Decoding Turbulence to Unveiling the Fingerprint of Climate Change: The Science of Klaus Hasselmann". In it, many scientists have their say who could not be included here due to lack of space.

[Storch] Hans von Storch (Autor und Herausgeber), From decoding turbulence to unveiling the fingerprint of climate change: The science of Klaus Hasselmann. - Cham: Springer, 2022. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-91716-6

[Marotzke2021] Marotzke, J. (2021), Physik und Klima: Zum Physik-Nobelpreis 2021 an Syukuro Manabe und Klaus Hasselmann. Physik Journal, 20 (12), 26-29

[Hasselmann1962] Hasselmann, K. (1962), On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum, Part 1. General theory, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 12, 481-500. doi: 10.1017/S0022112062000373.

[Hasselmann1976] Hasselmann, K. (1976), Stochastic climate models - 1. Theory. Tellus, 28, 473-485. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v28i6.11316

[Hasselmann1979] Hasselmann, K. (1979), On the signal-to-noise problem in atmospheric response studies. In Shaw, D. (Eds.), Meteorology over the tropical oceans (pp.251-259). Bracknell: Royal Meteorological Society.

[WAMgroup1988] WAM Development and Implementation Group (1988), The WAM Model - A third generation ocean wave prediction model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18, 1775-1810. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1988)018<1775:TWMTGO>2.0.CO;2

[Hasselmann1993] Hasselmann, K. (1993), Optimal fingerprints for the detection of time-dependent climate change. Journal of Climate, 6, 1957-1971. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1957:OFFTDO>2.0.CO;2

[Hegerl1996] Hegerl, G., von Storch, H., Hasselmann, K., Santer, B., Cubasch, U. & Jones, P. (1996), Detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climate change with an optimal fingerprint method. Journal of Climate, 9, 2281-2306. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2281:DGGICC>2.0.CO;2

[Santer1996] Santer, B., Taylor, K., Wigley, T. et al. (1996), A search for human influences on the thermal structure of the atmosphere. Nature 382, 39–46 (1996). doi: 10.1038/382039a0

[Hegerl1997] Hegerl, G. C., Hasselmann, K., Cubasch, U., Mitchell, J., Roeckner, E., Voss, R., Waszkewitz, J. (1997), Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change, Climate Dynamics, 13, 613-634. doi:10.1007/s003820050186.

[Hasselmann1997] K. Hasselmann (1997), Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change, Climate Dynamics, 13, 601-611. doi:10.1007/s003820050185.

Complete List of Publications

  • Hasselmann, K. (1976). Stochastic climate models: Part 1. Theory. Tellus, 28, 473-485. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v28i6.11316 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1979). On the signal-to-noise problem in atmospheric response studies. In Shaw, D. (Eds.), Meteorology over the tropical oceans (pp.251-259). Bracknell: Royal Meteorological Society. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1993). Optimal fingerprints for the detection of time-dependent climate change. Journal of Climate, 6, 1957-1971. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1957:OFFTDO>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Bengtsson, L., Cubasch, U., Hegerl, G., Rodhe, H., Roeckner, E., von Storch, H., Voss, R. & Waszkewitz, J. (1995). Detection of anthropogenic climate change using a fingerprint method. In Ditlevsen, P. (Eds.), Modern dynamical meteorology: Proceedings from a symposium in honor of Prof. Aksel Wiin-Nielsen (pp.203-221). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. Department of Geophysics. [publisher-version]
  • Hegerl, G., von Storch, H., Hasselmann, K., Santer, B., Cubasch, U. & Jones, P. (1996). Detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climate change with an optimal fingerprint method. Journal of Climate, 9, 2281-2306. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2281:DGGICC>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change. Climate Dynamics, 13, 601-611. doi:10.1007/s003820050185 [pre-print]
  • Hewitt, R., Cremades, R., Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2021). Beyond shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and representative concentration pathways (RCPs): climate policy implementation scenarios for Europe, the US and China. Climate Policy, 21, 434-454. doi:10.1080/14693062.2020.1852068 [publisher-version]
  • Pettersson, L., Kjelaas, A., Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2020). Climate change impact on the Arctic economy. In Johannessen, O., Bobylev, L., Shalina, E. & Sandven, S. (Eds.), Sea Ice in the Arctic: Past, Present and Future (pp.465-506). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21301-5_11
  • Heinze, C. & Hasselmann, K. (2019). Preface: Ernst Maier-Reimer and his way of modelling the ocean. Biogeosciences, 16(Spec. Iss.: Progress in quantifying ocean biogeochemistry – in honour of Ernst Maier-Reimer), 751-753. doi:10.5194/bg-16-751-2019 [publisher-version]
  • Hewitt, R., Kovalevsky, D., de Boer, C. & Hasselmann, K. (2017). Modelling actors’ influence on land use change: a dynamic systems approach. In Societal Geo-Innovation: short papers, posters and poster abstracts of the 20th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Wageningen University & Research, 09-12 May 2017 Wageningen, The Netherlands: . [publisher-version]
  • Kovalevsky, D., Hewitt, R., de Boer, C. & Hasselmann, K. (2017). A dynamic systems approach to the representation of policy implementation processes in a multi-actor world. Discontinuity, Nonlinearity, and Complexity, 6, 219-245. doi:10.5890/DNC.2017.09.001
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2016). Actor-based system dynamics modelling of win-win climate mitigation options. In The 8th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs 2016), 10-14 July 2016, Toulouse, France [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Cremades, R., Filatova, T., Hewitt, R., Jaeger, C., Kovalevsky, D., Voinov, A. & Winder, N. (2015). Free-riders to forerunners. Nature Geoscience, 8, 895 -898. doi:10.1038/ngeo2593
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2014). Assessing the transition to a low-carbon economy using actor-based system-dynamic models. In Proceedings - 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, iEMSs 2014 (pp.1865-1872). [publisher-version]
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2014). A hierarchy of out-of-equilibrium actor-based system-dynamic nonlinear economic models. Discontinuity, Nonlinearity, and Complexity, 3, 303-318. doi:10.5890/DNC.2014.09.007
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2014). Modelling the impacts of a national carbon tax in a country with inhomogeneous regional development: an actor-based system-dynamic approach. In ERSA 54th Congress "Regional development & globalisation: Best practices", 26-29 August 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA). [any-fulltext]
  • Giupponi, C., Borsuk, M., de Vries, B. & Hasselmann, K. (2013). Innovative approaches to integrated global change modelling. Environmental Modelling and Software, 44, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.01.013
  • Hasselmann, K. (2013). A classical path to unification. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 437: 012023. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/437/1/012023 [publisher-version]
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  • Hasselmann, K. (2013). Detecting and responding to climate change. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 65: 20088. doi:10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.20088 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Kovalevsky, D. (2013). Simulating animal spirits in actor-based environmental models. Environmental Modelling & Software, 44, 10-24. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.04.007
  • Hasselmann, K. (2013). Ernst Maier-Reimer: The discovery of silence. Nature Geoscience, 8, 809-809. doi:10.1038/ngeo1953
  • Hasselmann, K. & Voinow, A. (2012). The actor-driven dynamics of decarbonization. In Jaeger, C. & et al, . (Eds.), Reframing the problem of climate change (pp.131-159). Milton Park: Earthscan. doi:10.4324/9780203154724-13 [pre-print]
  • Jaeger, C., Hasselmann, K., Leipold, G., Mangalagiu, D. & Tabara, J. (2012). Introduction: Beyond the zero sum game: from shirking burdens to sharing benefits. In Jaeger, C. & et al, . (Eds.), Reframing the problem of climate change (pp.1-14). Milton Park: Earthscan. doi:10.4324/9780203154724
  • Jaeger, C., Hasselmann, K., Leipold, G., Mangalagiu, D. & Tabara, J. (2012). Conclusion - Action for climate. In Jaeger, C. & et al, . (Eds.), Reframing the problem of climate change (pp.237-244). Milton Park: Earthscan. doi:10.4324/9780203154724
  • Hasselmann, K. (2010). The climate change game. Nature Geosciences, 3, 511-512. doi:10.1038/ngeo919
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  • Hasselmann, K. (2009). What to do? Does science have a role?. European Physical Journal-Special Topics, 176, 37-51. doi:10.1140/epjst/e2009-01147-x [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Barker, T. (2008). The Stern Review and the IPCC fourth assessment report: implications for interaction between policymakers and climate experts. An editorial essay. Climatic Change, 89, 219-229. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9435-8
  • Jaeger, C., Krause, J., Haas, A., Klein, R. & Hasselmann, K. (2008). A method for computing the fraction of attributable risk related to climate damages. Risk Analysis, 28, 815-823. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01070.x [publisher-version]
  • von Laer, D., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (2006). Impact of gene-modified T cells on HIV infection dynamics. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 238, 60-77. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.05.005
  • von Laer, D., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (2006). Gene therapy for HIV infection: what does it need to make it work?. Journal of Gene Medicine, 8, 658-667. doi:10.1002/jgm.908
  • Barth, V. & Hasselmann, K. (2005). Analysis of climate damage abatement costs using a dynamic economic model. Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), 74, 148-163. [publisher-version]
  • Schnur, R. & Hasselmann, K. (2005). Optimal filtering for Bayesian detection and attribution of climate change. Climate Dynamics, 24, 45-55. doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0456-3
  • The International Ad Hoc Detection and Attribution Group (2005). Detecting and attributing external influences on the climate system: a review of recent advances. Journal of Climate, 18, 1291-1314. doi:10.1175/JCLI3329.1 [publisher-version]
  • Weber, M., Barth, V. & Hasselmann, K. (2005). A multi-actor dynamic integrated assessment model (MADIAM) of induced technological change and sustainable economic growth. Ecological Economics, 54(2-3), 306-327. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.12.035
  • Hasselmann, K., Schellnhuber, H. & Edenhofer, O. (2004). Climate change: complexity in action. Physics World, 17, 31-35. doi:10.1088/2058-7058/17/6/34
  • Hasselmann, K. & Hasselmann, S. (2004). The metron model: a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles - a progress report. In Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine (pp.788-795). Kyiv: Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine. [publisher-version]
  • Johannssen, O., Bengtsson, L., Miles, M., Kuzmina, S., Semenov, V., Alekseev, G., Nagurnyi, A., Zakharov, V., Bobylev, L., Pettersson, L., Hasselmann, K. & Cattle, A. (2004). Arctic climate change: observed and modelled temperature and sea-ice variability. Tellus Series A-Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 56(4), 328-341. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2004.00060.x [publisher-version]
  • Bruckner, T., Hooss, G., Füssel, H.-M. & Hasselmann, K. (2003). Climate system modeling in the framework of the tolerable windows approach: The ICLIPS climate model. Climatic Change, 56, 119-137. doi:10.1023/A:1021300924356 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Latif, M., Hooss, G., Azar, C., Edenhofer, O., Jaeger, C., Johannessen, O., Kemfert, C., Welp, M. & Wokaun, A. (2003). The challenge of long-term climate change. Science, 302(5652), 1923-1925. doi:10.1126/science.1090858 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (2002). Is climate predictable?. In Bunde, A., Kropp, J. & Schellnhuber, J. (Eds.), The science of disasters: climate disruption, heart attacks, and market crashes (pp.141-169). Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56257-0_4
  • Johannessen, O., Sagen, H., Hamre, T., Hobaek, H., Hasselmann, K., Maier-Reimer, E., Mikolajewicz, U., Wadhams, P., Kaletzky, A., Bobylev, L., Evert, E., Troyan, V., Naugolnykh, K. & Esipov, I. (2002). Acoustic monitoring of ocean climate in the Arctic (AMOC). In Flemming, N. & Vallerga et al, S. (Eds.), Operational Oceanography - Implementation at the European and regional Scales (pp.371-378). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV. doi:10.1016/S0422-9894(02)80043-5
  • Hasselmann, K. (2001). Optimizing long-term climate management. In Schulze, E.-D. & Heimann, M. (Eds.), Global biogeochemical cycles in the climate system (pp.333-343). San Diego : Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-012631260-7/50029-7
  • Hooss, G., Voss, R., Hasselmann, K., Maier-Reimer, E. & Joos, F. (2001). A nonlinear impulse response model of the coupled carbon cycle climate system (NICCS). Climate Dynamics, 18, 189-202. doi:10.1007/s003820100170 [publisher-version]
  • Joos, F., Prentice, I., Sitch, S., Meyer, R., Hooss, G., Plattner, G.-K., Gerber, S. & Hasselmann, K. (2001). Global warming feedbacks on terrestrial carbon uptake under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 891-907. doi:10.1029/2000GB001375 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (2000). The outlook for climate change. In Siebert, H.Institut für Weltwirtschaft an der Universität Kiel (Eds.), The Economics of International Environmental Problems (pp.27-49). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. [publisher-version]
  • Barnett, T., Hasselmann, K., Chelliah, M., Delworth, T., Hegerl, G., Jones, P., Rasmusson, E., Roeckner, E., Ropelewski, C., Santer, B. & Tett, S. (1999). Detection and attribution of recent climate change: A status report. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80, 2631-2659. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2631:DAAORC>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1999). Intertemporal accounting of climate change - Harmonizing economic efficiency and climate stewardship. Climatic Change, 41, 333-350. doi:10.1023/A:1005441119269 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1999). Climate prediction is heavy weather. Physics World, 12, 24.
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  • Hasselmann, K. (1999). Climate change - Linear and nonlinear signatures. Nature, 398(6730), 755-756. doi:10.1038/19635
  • Hasselmann, K. (1999). Cooperative and non-cooperative multi-actor strategies of optimizing greenhouse gas emissions. In von Storch, H. (Eds.), Anthropogenic climate change (pp.209-256). Berlin u.a.: Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-59992-7_7
  • Petschel-Held, G., Schellnhuber, H., Bruckner, T., Toth, F. & Hasselmann, K. (1999). The tolerable windows approach: Theoretical and methodological foundations. Climatic Change, 41, 303-331. doi:10.1023/A:1005487123751 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1998). The metron model: Towards a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles. In Richter, A. (Eds.), Understanding Physics (pp.155-186). Katlenburg-Lindau: Copernicus Gesellschaft. [pre-print][publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1998). Conventional and Bayesian approach to climate-change detection and attribution. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 124, 2541-2565. doi:10.1002/qj.49712455202
  • Hasselmann, K. & Hasselmann, S. (1998). Multi-actor optimization of greenhouse gas emission paths using coupled integral climate response and economic models. In Schellnhuber, H.-J. & Wenzel, V. (Eds.), Earth systems analysis: integrating science for sustainability - Complemented results of a symposium (pp.381-415). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-52354-0_20 [pre-print]
  • Heimbach, P., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1998). Statistical analysis and intercomparison of WAM model data with global ERS-1 SAR wave mode spectral retrievals over 3 years. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 103, 7931-7977. doi:10.1029/97JC03203 [publisher-version]
  • Bauer, E., Hasselmann, S., Lionello, P. & Hasselmann, K. (1997). Comparison of assimilation results from an optimal interpolation and the Green's function method using ERS-1 SAR wave mode spectra. In Third ERS Symposium on Space at the Service of our Environment (pp.1131-1136). [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). The metron model: Towards a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles, Part 3: Quantum phenomena. Physics Essays, 10, 64-86.
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  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). Climate-change research after Kyoto. Nature, 390(6657), 225-226. doi:10.1038/36719
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). The metron model: Towards a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles, Part 4: The standard model. Physics Essays, 10, 269-286.
  • Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S., Giering, R., Ocaña, V. & von Storch, H. (1997). Sensitivity study of optimal CO2 emission paths using a simplified Structural Integrated Assessment Model (SIAM). Climatic Change, 37, 345-386. doi:10.1023/A:1005339625015 [pre-print]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). Climate change - Are we seeing global warming?. Science, 276(5314), 914-915. doi:10.1126/science.276.5314.914
  • Hegerl, G., Hasselmann, K., Cubasch, U., Mitchell, J., Roeckner, E., Voss, R. & Waszkewitz, J. (1997). Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change. Climate Dynamics, 13, 613-634. doi:10.1007/s003820050186 [pre-print]
  • Heimbach, P., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1997). Three year global intercomparison of ERS-1 SAR wave mode spectral retrievals with WAM model data. In Third ERS Symposium on Space at the Service of our Environment (pp.1143-1149). [publisher-version]
  • Barzel, G., Long, R., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1996). Wave model fitting using the adjoint technique. In Donelan, M., Hui, W. & Plant, W. (Eds.), The Air-Sea Interface: Radio and Acoustic Sensing, Turbulence and Wave Dynamics (pp.347-354). Miami, Florida: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Univ. Miami. [publisher-version]
  • Bauer, E., Hasselmann, K., Young, I. & Hasselmann, S. (1996). Assimilation of wave data into the wave model WAM using an impulse response function method. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101, 3801-3816. doi:10.1029/95JC03306 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1996). The metron model: Towards a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles, Part 2: The Maxwell-Dirac-Einstein system. Physics Essays, 9, 460-475.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1996). The metron model: Towards a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles, Part 1: The Metron concept. Physics Essays, 9, 311-325.
  • Hasselmann, S., Bruning, C., Hasselmann, K. & Heimbach, P. (1996). An improved algorithm for the retrieval of ocean wave spectra from synthetic aperture radar image spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101, 16615-16629. doi:10.1029/96JC00798 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, S., Hasselmann, K. & Brüning, C. (1996). Extraction of wave data from ERS-1 SAR wave mode image spectra. In Donelan, M., Hui, W. & Plant, W. (Eds.), The Air-Sea Interface: Radio and Acoustic Sensing, Turbulence and Wave Dynamics (pp.773-780). Miami, Florida: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Univ. Miami. [publisher-version]
  • Hegerl, G., von Storch, H., Hasselmann, K., Santer, B., Cubasch, U. & Jones, P. (1996). Detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climate change with an optimal fingerprint method. Journal of Climate, 9, 2281-2306. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2281:DGGICC>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Lehner, S., Bruns, T. & Hasselmann, K. (1996). Test of a new onboard shiprouteing system. In Proceedings of the Second ERS Applications workshop (pp.297-301). Noordwijk: ESA / ESTAC. [publisher-version]
  • Lionello, P., Hasselmann, K. & Mellor, G. (1996). On the coupling between a surface wave model and a model of the mixed layer in the ocean. In Donelan, M., Hui, W. & Plant, W. (Eds.), The Air-Sea Interface: Radio and Acoustic Sensing, Turbulence and Wave Dynamics (pp.195-201). Miami, Florida: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Univ. Miami. [publisher-version]
  • Santer, B., Mikolajewicz, U., Brüggemann, W., Cubasch, U., Hasselmann, K., Höck, H., Maier-Reimer, E. & Wigley, T. (1995). Ocean variability and its influence on the detectability of greenhouse warming signals. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 100, 10693-10725. doi:10.1029/95JC00683 [publisher-version]
  • von Storch, H. & Hasselmann, K. (1995). Climate variability and change. In Hempel, G. (Eds.), The ocean and the poles: Grand challenges for European cooperation (pp.33-58). Jena u.a.: Gustav Fischer Verl.. [publisher-version]
  • Brüning, C., Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S., Lehner , S. & Gerling, T. (1994). A first evaluation of ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar wave mode data. The Global Atmosphere and Ocean System, 2, 61 -98. [publisher-version]
  • Santer, B., Brüggemann, W., Cubasch, U., Hasselmann, K., Höck, H., Maier-Reimer, E. & Mikolajewicz, U. (1994). Signal-to-noise analysis of time-dependent greenhouse warming experiments. Part 1: Pattern analysis. Climate Dynamics, 9, 267-285. doi:10.1007/BF00204743 [pre-print]
  • Brüning, C., Hasselmann, S., Hasselmann, K., Lehner, S. & Gerling, T. (1993). On the extraction of ocean wave spectra from ERS-1 SAR wave mode image spectra. In Proceedings of the first ERS-1 Symposium: Space at the Service of our Environment, 4 - 6 November 1992, Cannes, France (pp.747-752). Noordwijk: ESA Publishing Division. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1993). Optimal fingerprints for the detection of time-dependent climate change. Journal of Climate, 6, 1957-1971. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1957:OFFTDO>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Sausen, R., Maier-Reimer, E. & Voss, R. (1993). On the cold start problem in transient simulations with coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Climate Dynamics, 9, 53-61. doi:10.1007/BF00210008 [publisher-version]
  • Heinze, C. & Hasselmann, K. (1993). Inverse multiparameter modeling of paleoclimate Carbon cycle indices. Quaternary Research, 40, 281-296. doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1082
  • Maier-Reimer, E., Mikolajewicz, U. & Hasselmann, K. (1993). Mean circulation of the Hamburg LSG OGCM and its sensitivity to the thermohaline surface forcing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23, 731-757. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<0731:MCOTHL>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version][publisher-version]
  • Snyder, R., Thacker, W., Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S. & Barzel, G. (1993). Implementation of an efficient scheme for calculating nonlinear transfer from wave-wave interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 98, 14507-14525. doi:10.1029/93JC00657 [publisher-version]
  • Bauer, E., Hasselmann, K. & Young, I. (1992). Satellite data assimilation in the wave model 3G-WAM. In Proceedings of the Central Symposium of the "International Space Year" Conference, Munich, Germany, 30. March - 4. April 1992 (pp.377-380). Noordwijk: ESA Publishing Division. [publisher-version]
  • Bauer, E., Hasselmann, S., Hasselmann, K. & Graber, H. (1992). Validation and assimilation of Seasat altimeter wave heights using the WAM wave model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 97, 12671-12682. doi:10.1029/92JC01056 [publisher-version]
  • Cubasch, U., Hasselmann, K., Höck, H., Maier-Reimer, E., Mikolajewicz, U., Santer, B. & Sausen, R. (1992). Time-dependent greenhouse warming computations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Climate Dynamics, 8, 55-69. doi:10.1007/BF00209163 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Sausen, R., Maier-Reimer, E. & Voss, R. (1992). Das Kaltstartproblem bei Klimasimulationen mit gekoppelten Atmosphäre-Ozean-Modellen. Annalen der Meteorologie, 27, 153-154. [publisher-version]
  • Bakan, S., Chlond, A., Cubasch, U., Feichter, J., Graf, H., Grassl, H., Hasselmann, K., Kirchner, I., Latif, M., Roeckner, E., Sausen , R., Schlese, U., Schriever , D., Schult , I., Schumann , U., Sielmann, F. & Welke, W. (1991). Climate response to smoke from the burning oil-wells in Kuwait. Nature, 351, 367-371. doi:10.1038/351367a0
  • Donelan, M., Ezraty, R., Banner, M., Hasselmann, K., Janssen, P., Phillips, O. & Dobson, F. (1991). Research needs for better wave forecasting: LEWEX Panel Discussion. In Beal, R. (Eds.), Directional ocean wave spectra: measuring. modeling. predicting, and applying (pp.196-204). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Hasselmann, S. (1991). On the nonlinear mapping of an ocean wave spectrum into a synthetic aperture radar image spectrum and its inversion. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 96, 10713-10729. doi:10.1029/91JC00302 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1991). Ocean circulation and climate change. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 43, 82-103. doi:10.3402/tellusb.v43i4.15399 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1991). How well can we predict the climate crisis?. In Siebert, H.Institut für Weltwirtschaft an der Universität Kiel (Eds.), Environmental Scarcity: The International Dimensions (pp.165-183). Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). doi:10.17617/2.2536177 [pre-print]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1991). Waves, dreams, and visions (Epilogue). In Beal, R. (Eds.), Directional ocean wave spectra: measuring, modeling, predicting, and applying (pp.205-208). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S., Brüning, C. & Speidel, A. (1991). Interpretation and application of SAR wave image spectra in wave models. In Beal, R. (Eds.), Directional ocean wave spectra: measuring. modeling. predicting, and applying (pp.117-124). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [publisher-version]
  • Bruening, C., Alpers, W. & Hasselmann, K. (1990). Monte-Carlo simulation studies of the nonlinear imaging of a two dimensional surface wave field by a synthetic aperture radar. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 11, 1695-1727. doi:10.1080/01431169008955125 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1990). Climate and development: scientific efforts and assessment - The state of the art. In Karpe, H.-J., Otten, D. & Trinidade, S. (Eds.), Climate and development: climatic change and variability and the resulting social, economic and technological implications (pp.67-122). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-45670-1_11
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  • Hasselmann, K. (1990). Equation punctuation argumentation. Physics Today, 43, 15. [publisher-version]
  • Wigley, T. & Barnett, T. (1990). Detection of greenhouse effect in the observations. In Houghton, J., Jenkins, G. & Ephraums, J. (Eds.), Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment (pp.239-256). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1989). Das Klimaproblem - eine Herausforderung an die Forschung. In Gerwin, R. (Eds.), Wie die Zukunft Wurzeln schlug: Aus der Forschung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (pp.145-159). Berlin u.a.: Springer-Verlag. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1988). Some problems in the numerical simulation of climate variability using high-resolution coupled models. In Schlesinger, M. (Eds.), Physically-based modelling and simulation of climate and climatic change: Part 1 (pp.583-614). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ.. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3041-4_14
  • Hasselmann, K. (1988). PIPs and POPs: The reduction of complex dynamical systems using principal interaction and oscillation patterns. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 93, 11015-11021. doi:10.1029/JD093iD09p11015 [publisher-version]
  • Sausen, R., Barthel, K. & Hasselmann, K. (1988). Coupled ocean-atmosphere models with flux correction. Climate Dynamics, 2, 145-163. doi:10.1007/BF01053472 [publisher-version][pre-print]
  • von Storch, H., Bruns, T., Fischer‐Bruns, I. & Hasselmann, K. (1988). Principal oscillation pattern analysis of the 30‐ to 60‐day oscillation in general circulation model equatorial troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 93, 11022-11036. doi:10.1029/JD093iD09p11022 [publisher-version]
  • WAM Development and Implementation Group (1988). The WAM Model - A third generation ocean wave prediction model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18, 1775-1810. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1988)018<1775:TWMTGO>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Winebrenner, D. & Hasselmann, K. (1988). Specular point scattering contribution to the mean Synthetic Aperture Radar image of the ocean surface. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 93, 9281-9294. doi:10.1029/JC093iC08p09281 [publisher-version]
  • Herterich, K. & Hasselmann, K. (1987). Extraction of mixed layer advection velocities, diffusion coefficients, feedback factors and atmospheric forcing parameters from the statistical analysis of North Pacific SST anomaly fields. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17, 2145-2156. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1987)017<2145:EOMLAV>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Maier-Reimer, E. & Hasselmann, K. (1987). Transport and storage of CO2 in the ocean - an inorganic ocean-circulation carbon cycle model. Climate Dynamics, 2, 63-90. doi:10.1007/BF01054491
  • Young, I., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1987). Computations of the response of a wave spectrum to a sudden change in wind direction. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17, 1317-1338. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1987)017<1317:COTROA>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Gilchrist, A. & Hasselmann, K. (1986). Climate modelling. In Ghazi, A. & Fantechi, R. (Eds.), Current Issues in Climate Research (pp.10-15). Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Hasselmann, K., Guymer, T., Johnson, D., Kaneshige, T., Lefebvre, M., Rapley, C., Mollo-Christensen, E., Lecomte, P., Conde, J., Svendson, E. & Liferman, A. (1986). The feasibility of an ERS-1 oriented, but scientifically autonomous, international experiment campaign. Report of Working Group 6. In Proceedings of an ESA Workhop on ERS-1 Wind and Wave Calibration, Schliersee 1986 (pp.223-227). Noordwijk: ESA Scientific and Technical Publications Branch. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Alpers, W. (1986). The response of Synthetic Aperture Radar to ocean surface waves. In Phillips, O. & Hasselmann, K. (Eds.), Wave dynamics and radio probing of the ocean surface: Proc. IUCRM Symposium (pp.393-402). Plenum Publ. Corp.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8980-4_27
  • Hasselmann, K. (1986). Climate modelling activities at the Max-Planck-Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg. In Ghazi, A. & Fantechi, R. (Eds.), Current Issues in Climate Research (pp.172-194). Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1986). Wave modelling activities of the WAM Group relevant to ERS-1. In Proceedings of an ESA Workhop on ERS-1 Wind and Wave Calibration, Schliersee 1986 (pp.173-175). Noordwijk: ESA Scientific and Technical Publications Branch. [publisher-version]
  • Kruse, H. & Hasselmann, K. (1986). Investigation of processes governing the large-scale variability of the atmosphere using low-order barotropic spectral models as a statistical tool. Tellus Series A-Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 38, 12-24. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v38i1.11694 [publisher-version]
  • Attema, E., Bengtsson, L., Bertotti, L., Cavaleri, L., Cavanie, A., Frassetto, R., Guymer, T., Hasselmann, K., Kaneshige, T., Komen, G., Offiler, D., Larsen, S., Louet, J., Pierdicca, N., Powell, J., Rapley, C., Rosenthal, W., Schwenzfeger, K., Thomas, J., Trivero, P. & de Voogt, W. (1985). Report on the Working Group on Wind and Wave Data. In The use of satellite data in climate models: Proc. of a conference held in Alpach, Austria, 10-12 June 1985 (pp.XIII-XVI). Noordwijk: ESA Scientific and Technical Publications Branch. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1985). Assimilation of microwave data in atmospheric and wave models. In The use of satellite data in climate models: Proc. of a conference held in Alpach, Austria, 10-12 June 1985 (pp.47-52). Noordwijk: ESA Scientific and Technical Publications Branch. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Raney, R., Plant, W., Alpers, W., Shuchman, R., Lyzenga, D., Rufenach, C. & Tucker, M. (1985). Theory of synthetic aperture radar ocean imaging: A MARSEN view. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 90, 4659-4686. doi:10.1029/JC090iC03p04659 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1985). The wave model EXACT-NL. In Ocean wave modeling (pp.249-251). Heidelberg u.a.: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-6055-2_24
  • Hasselmann, S., Hasselmann, K., Allender, J. & Barnett, T. (1985). Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum. Part II: Parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer for application in wave models. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15, 1378-1391. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1985)015<1378:CAPOTN>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1985). Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum. Part I: A new method for efficient computations of the exact nonlinear transfer integral. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15, 1369-1377. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1985)015<1369:CAPOTN>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Barnett, T., Heinz, H.-D. & Hasselmann, K. (1984). Statistical prediction of seasonal air temperature over Eurasia. Tellus Series A-Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 36, 132-146. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v36i2.11476 [publisher-version]
  • Komen, G., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1984). On the existence of a fully developed wind-sea spectrum. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14, 1271-1285. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1984)014<1271:OTEOAF>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Herterich, K. (1983). Application of inverse modelling techniques to paleoclimatic data. In Ghazi, A. (Eds.), Paleoclimatic Research and Models (PRaM): Report and Proceedings of the Workshop (pp.52-68). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publ. Comp.. [publisher-version]
  • Alpers, W. & Hasselmann, K. (1982). Spectral signal to clutter and thermal noise properties of ocean wave imaging synthetic aperture radars. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 3, 423-446. doi:10.1080/01431168208948413
  • Hasselmann, K. (1982). An ocean model for climate variability studies. Progress in Oceanography, 11, 69-92. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(82)90004-0 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Shemdin, O. (1982). Remote sensing experiment in MARSEN (Foreword). International Journal of Remote Sensing, 3, 359-361. [publisher-version]
  • Herterich, K. & Hasselmann, K. (1982). The horizontal diffusion of tracers by surface waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 12, 704-711. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<0704:THDOTB>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Barnett, T., Preisendorfer, R., Goldstein, L. & Hasselmann, K. (1981). Significance tests for regression model hierarchies. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11, 1150-1154. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<1150:STFRMH>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Cardone, V., Carlson, H., Ewing, J., Hasselmann, K., Lazanoff, S., McLeish, W. & Ross, D. (1981). The surface wave environment in the GATE B/C Scale - Phase III. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11, 1280-1293. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<1280:TSWEIT>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Barnett, T. (1981). Techniques of linear prediction for systems with periodic statistics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 38, 2275-2283. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<2275:TOLPFS>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1981). Modeling the global oceanic circulation for climatic space and time scales. In Kraus, E. & Fieux, M. (Eds.), NATO Advanced Research Institute on 'Large Scale Transport of Heat and Matter in the Oceans' (pp.112-122). Paris: Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1981). Construction and verification of stochastic climate models. In Berger, A. (Eds.), Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories (pp.481-497). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publ. Comp.. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-8514-8_28 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1980). Ein stochastisches Modell der natürlichen Klimavariabilität. In Oeschger, H. (Eds.), Das Klima: Analysen und Modelle, Geschichte und Zukunft (pp.259-260). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer . doi:10.1007/978-3-642-67813-4_17 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1980). A simple algorithm for the direct extraction of the two-dimensional surface image spectrum from the return signal of a synthetic aperture radar. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 1, 219-240. doi:10.1080/01431168008948234
  • Hasselmann, K. (1980). Klimamodelle. Annalen der Meteorologie, N.F. 15, 81-82. [publisher-version]
  • Herterich, K. & Hasselmann, K. (1980). A similarity relation for the non-linear energy-transfer in a finite-depth gravity-wave spectrum. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 97, 215-224. doi:10.1017/S0022112080002522 [publisher-version]
  • Lemke, P., Trinkl, E. & Hasselmann, K. (1980). Stochastic dynamic analysis of polar sea ice variability. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10, 2100-2120. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<2100:SDAOPS>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Shemdin, O., Hsiao, S., Carlson, H., Hasselmann, K. & Schulze, K. (1980). Mechanisms of wave transformation in finite-depth water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 85, 5012-5018. doi:10.1029/JC085iC09p05012 [publisher-version]
  • Barnett, T. & Hasselmann, K. (1979). Techniques of linear prediction, with application to oceanic and atmospheric fields in the tropical Pacific. Reviews of Geophysics, 17, 949-968. doi:10.1029/RG017i005p00949 [publisher-version]
  • Gunther, H., Rosenthal, W., Weare, T., Worthington, B., Hasselmann, K. & Ewing, J. (1979). A hybrid parametrical wave prediction model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 84, 5727-5738. doi:10.1029/JC084iC09p05727 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1979). On the signal-to-noise problem in atmospheric response studies. In Shaw, D. (Eds.), Meteorology over the tropical oceans (pp.251-259). Bracknell: Royal Meteorological Society. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1979). Linear statistical models. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 3, 501-521. doi:10.1016/0377-0265(79)90029-0 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1979). On the problem of multiple time scales in climate modelling.
  • Long, R. & Hasselmann, K. (1979). Variational technique for extracting directional spectra from multicomponent wave data. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9, 373-381. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0373:AVTFED>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Alpers, W., Hasselmann, K. & Kunstmann, J. (1978). Validity of weak particle-field interaction theory for description of cosmic-ray particle diffusion in random magnetic-fields. Astrophysics and Space Science, 58, 259-271. doi:10.1007/BF00644516
  • Alpers, W. & Hasselmann, K. (1978). The two-frequency microwave technique for measuring ocean-wave spectra from an airplane or satellite. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 13, 215-230. doi:10.1007/BF00913873
  • Crombie, D., Hasselmann, K. & Sell , W. (1978). High-frequency radar observations of sea waves travelling in opposition to the wind. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 13, 45-54. doi:10.1007/BF00913861
  • Hasselmann, K., Alpers, W., Barick, D., Crombie, D., Flachi, C., Fung, A., van Hutten, H., Jones, W., De Loor, G., Lipa, B., Long, R., Ross, D., Rufenach, C., Sandham, W., Shemdin, O., Teague, C., Trizna, D., Valenzuela, G., Walsh, E., Wentz, F. & Wright, J. (1978). Radar measurements of wind and waves. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 13, 405-412. doi:10.1007/BF00913885
  • Hasselmann, K. (1978). On the spectral energy balance and numerical prediction of ocean waves. In Favre, A. & Hasselmann, K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the NATO Symposium on Turbulent Fluxes Through the Sea Surface, Wave Dynamics, and Prediction (pp.531-545). Plenum Publ. Corp.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-9806-9_35
  • Shemdin, O., Hasselmann, K., Hsiao, S. & Herterich, K. (1978). Nonlinear and linear bottom interaction effects in shallow water. In Favre, A. & Hasselmann, K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the NATO Symposium on Turbulent Fluxes Through the Sea Surface, Wave Dynamics, and Prediction (pp.347-372). Plenum Publ. Corp.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-9806-9_23
  • Frankignoul, C. & Hasselmann, K. (1977). Stochastic climate models - 2. Application to sea-surface temperature anomalies and thermocline variability. Tellus, 29, 289-305. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v29i4.11362 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1977). Application of 2-timing methods in statistical geophysics. Journal of Geophysics - Zeitschrift für Geophysik, 43, 351-358. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Herterich, K. (1977). Klima und Klimavorhersage. Annalen der Meteorologie, 12, 42-46. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Ross, D., Müller, P. & Sell, W. (1977). A parametric wave prediction model - a reply. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 7, 134-137. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1977)007<0134:R>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Leipold, G. & Hasselmann, K. (1977). Lösung von Bewegungsgleichungen durch Projektion auf Parametergleichungen, dargestellt an der ozeanischen Deckschicht. Annalen der Meteorologie, 12, 50-51. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1976). Stochastic climate models: Part 1. Theory. Tellus, 28, 473-485. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v28i6.11316 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Ross, D., Müller, P. & Sell, W. (1976). A parametric wave prediction model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 6, 200-228. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1976)006<0200:APWPM>2.0.CO;2 [publisher-version]
  • Alpers, W., Hasselmann, K. & Schieler, M. (1975). Fernerkundung der Meeresoberfläche von Satelliten aus. Raumfahrtforschung, 19, 1-7. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1974). On the spectral dissipation of ocean waves due to white capping. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 6, 107-127. doi:10.1007/BF00232479 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Barnett, T., Bouws, E., Carlson, H., Cartwright, D., Enke, K., Ewing, J., Gienapp, A., Hasselmann, D., Kruseman, P., Meerburg, A., Müller, P., Olbers, D., Richter, K., Sell, W. & Walden, H. (1973). Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the joint North Sea wave project (JONSWAP).. Ergänzungsheft zur Deutschen Hydrographischen Zeitschrift, Reihe A, Nr. 12. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1973). On the characterisation of the wave field in the problem of ship response. Schiffstechnik, 20, 56-60. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1972). Die Vorhersage in der Meeresforschung. Meerestechnik - Marine Technology, 3, 96-99. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1971). On the mass and momentum transfer between short gravity waves and larger-scale motions. The Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 50, 189-205. doi:10.1017/S0022112071002520 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1971). Determination of ocean wave spectra from Doppler radio return from the sea surface. Nature - Physical Science, 229, 16-17. doi:10.1038/physci229016a0
  • Essen, H.-H. & Hasselmann, K. (1970). Scattering low-frequency sound in the ocean. Zeitschrift für Geophysik, 36, 655-678. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Wibberenz, G. (1970). A note on the parallel diffusion coefficient. The Astrophysical Journal, 162, 1049-1051. doi:10.1086/150736 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Schieler, M. (1970). Radar backscatter from the sea surface. In Eighth Symposium Naval Hydrodynamics (pp.361-388). Arlington: Office of Naval Research. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1970). Wave‐driven inertial oscillations. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 1, 463-502. doi:10.1080/03091927009365783 [publisher-version]
  • Wibberenz, G., Hasselmann, K. & Hasselmann, D. (1970). Comparison of particle-field interaction theory with solar proton diffusion coefficients. Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 29(Suppl. 2), 37-46. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1969). The sea surface. In Morning review lectures of the Second International Oceanographic Congress (pp.49-54). Paris: UNESCO. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Wibberenz, G. (1968). Scattering of charged particles by random electromagnetic fields. Zeitschrift für Geophysik, 34, 353-388. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1968). Weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. In Holt, M. (Eds.), Basic developments in fluid dynamics (pp.117-182). New York: Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-395520-3.50008-6 [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Collins, J. (1968). Spectral dissipation of finite-depth gravity waves due to turbulent bottom friction. Journal of Marine Research, 26, 1-12. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1967). A criterion for nonlinear wave stability. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 737-739. doi:10.1017/S0022112067001739 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1967). Nonlinear interactions treated by methods of theoretical physics (with application to generation of waves by wind). Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 299(1456), 77-103. doi:10.1098/rspa.1967.0124
  • Hasselmann, K. (1966). On nonlinear ship motions in irregular waves. Journal of Ship Research, 10, 64-68.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1966). Feynman diagrams and interaction rules of wave‐wave scattering processes. Reviews of Geophysics, 4, 1-32. doi:10.1029/RG004i001p00001 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1966). Generation of waves by turbulent wind. In Cooper, R. (Eds.), Sixth Symposium Naval Hydrodynamics (pp.585-592). Washington: Office of Naval Research. [any-fulltext]
  • Snodgrass, F., Groves, G., Hasselmann, K., Miller, G., Munk, W. & Powers, W. (1966). Propagation of ocean swell across the Pacific. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 259(1103), 431-497. doi:10.1098/rsta.1966.0022
  • Hasselmann, K. (1965). Über Streuprozesse in nichtlinear gekoppelten Wellenfeldern. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 45(S1), T114-T115. doi:10.1002/zamm.19650459058 [publisher-version]
  • Munk, W. & Hasselmann, K. (1964). Super-resolution of tides. In Yoshida, K. (Eds.), Studies on Oceanography (pp.339-344). University of Tokyo Press. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K., Munk, W. & MacDonald, G. (1963). Bispectra of ocean waves. In Rosenblatt, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on time series analysis (pp.125-139). Wiley: New York. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1963). On the nonlinear energy transfer in a wave spectrum. In Ocean wave spectra: Proceedings of a conference (pp.191-200). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1963). On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity wave spectrum: Part 2. Conservation theorems; wave-particle analogy; irreversibility. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 15, 273-281. doi:10.1017/S0022112063000239 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1963). A statistical analysis of the generation of microseisms. Reviews of Geophysics, 1, 177-210. doi:10.1029/RG001i002p00177 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1963). On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum: Part 3. Evaluation of the energy flux and swell-sea interaction for a Neumann spectrum. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 15, 385-398. doi:10.1017/S002211206300032X [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1962). On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum: Part 1. General theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 12, 481-500. doi:10.1017/S0022112062000373 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1962). Über zufallserregte Schwingungssysteme. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 42, 465-476. doi:10.1002/zamm.19620421005 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1961). Über den nichtlinearen Energieaustausch innerhalb eines Seegangsspektrums. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 41(S1), T137-T138. doi:10.1002/zamm.19610411372 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1960). Grundgleichungen der Seegangsvoraussage. Schiffstechnik, 7, 191-195. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1960). Die Totalreflexion einer kugelförmigen Kompressionsfront an der Trennungsebene zweier elastischer Medien. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 40, 464-472. doi:10.1002/zamm.19600401005 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1958). Die Totalreflexion von kugelförmigen Kompressionsfronten in elastischen Medien; v. Schmidtsche Kopfwellen. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 38, 310-312. doi:10.1002/zamm.19580380734 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1958). Zur Deutung der dreifachen Geschwindigkeitskorrelationen der isotropen Turbulenz. Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift, 11, 207-217. doi:10.1007/BF02020016 [publisher-version]
  • von Storch, H. (Eds.). (2022). From decoding turbulence to unveiling the fingerprint of climate change: Klaus Hasselmann—Nobel Prize Winner in Physics 2021. Cham: Springer Nature. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-91716-6 [publisher-version]
  • Jaeger, C., Hasselmann, K., Leipold, G., Mangalagiu, D. & Tàbara, J. (Eds.). (2012). Reframing the problem of climate change: From zero sum game to win-win solutions. Milton Park: Earthscan. doi:10.4324/9780203154724 [table-of-contents]
  • von Storch, H. & Hasselmann, K. (2010). Seventy years of exploration in oceanography: A prolonged weekend discussion with Walter Munk. Berlin u.a.: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12087-9
  • Komen, G., Cavaleri, L., Donelan, M., Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S. & Janssen, P. (Eds.). (1996). Dynamics and modelling of ocean waves. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511628955
  • Phillips, O. & Hasselmann, K. (Eds.). (1986). Wave dynamics and radio probing of the ocean surface. New York: Plenum Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8980-4
  • Hunt, J., Bengtsson, L., Bolle, H.-J., Gudmandsen, P., Hasselmann, K., Houghton, J. & Morel, P. (Eds.). (1985). The use of satellite data in climate models: Proceedings of a conference held in Alpach, Austria, 10-12 June 1985. Noordwijk: ESA Scientific & Technical Publications Branch . [any-fulltext]
  • The SWAMP Group (1985). Ocean wave modeling. New York: Plenum Publ. Corp.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-6055-2
  • Favre, A. & Hasselmann, K. (Eds.). (1978). Turbulent fluxes through the sea surface, wave dynamics, and prediction. Berlin u.a.: Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-9806-9
  • Hasselmann, K. (1955). Über die Trägheitskräfte der isotropen Turbulenz. Thesis, Technische Universität Hamburg. Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, 17. doi:10.15480/882.516 [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1957). Über eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Reflexion und Brechung von Stoßfronten und von beliebigen Wellen kleiner Wellenlängen an der Trennungsfläche zweier Medien. Phd Thesis, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.
  • (2021). From decoding turbulence to unveiling the fingerprint of climate change: the science of Klaus Hasselmann (Preprint). [Preprint]
  • Hewitt, R., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D. & Cremades , R. (2019). The transformative role of actor interactions: new approaches to the climate policy narrative. In The 11th International Social Innovation Research Conference (ISIRC 2019) - ISIRC Abstract Booklet Glasgow, UK: .
  • Hasselmann, K. (2017). 12 Fragen An. 12 Questions to. Gaia-Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 26, 4-5. doi:10.14512/gaia.26.1.2 [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Capellán-Pérez, I., Filatova, T., Gonzá-lez-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S. & Tariku, M. (2016). Socio-ecological system. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.49-54). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Capellán-Pérez, I., Filatova, T., Gonzá-lez-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S. & Tariku, M. (2016). Definitions. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.39-42). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Boonman, H., Capellán-Pérez, I., Husby, T., Filatova, T., González-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S., Niamir, L., Tariku, M. & Voinov, A. (2016). Climate mitigation policies. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.67-80). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Boonman, H., Capellán-Pérez, I., Husby, T., Filatova, T., González-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S., Niamir, L., Tariku, M. & Voinov, A. (2016). Lake system. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.55-66). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Boonman, H., Capellán-Pérez, I., Husby, T., Filatova, T., González-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S., Niamir, L., Tariku, M. & Voinov, A. (2016). Coupled environment-ecology models. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.81-108). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Capellán-Pérez, I., Filatova, T., Gonzá-lez-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S. & Tariku, M. (2016). The climate system. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.43-48). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Kovalevsky, D. (2016). A hierarchy of out-of-equilibrium actor-based system-dynamic nonlinear economic models. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and System-Flips (pp.109-117). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Kovalevskiy, D., Shchiptsova, A., Rovenskaya, E. & Hasselmann, K. (2016). Narrowing uncertainty of projections of the global economy-climate system dynamics via mutually compatible integration within multi-model ensembles. IIASA Working Paper, WP-16-015. [publisher-version]
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2016). Actor-based system dynamics modelling of abrupt climate change scenarios. In Winder, N. & Liljenström, H. (Eds.), EU FP7 COMPLEX Final Scientific Report, Vol. 2: Non-linearities and system-flips (pp.118-127). Sigtuna, Sweden: Sigtunastiftelsen. [publisher-version]
  • Kovalevsky, D., Arto, I., Dhavala, K., Filatova, T., Hasselmann, K., Moghayer, S., Niamir, L. & Voinov, A. (2015). Report on integration of climate scenarios in the modeling system. EU FP7 COMPLEX Report, D5.4. [publisher-version]
  • Arto, I., Capellán-Pérez, I., Filatova, T., González-Eguinob, M., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Markandya, A., Moghayer, S. & Tariku, M. (2014). Review of existing literature on methodologies to model non- linearity, thresholds and irreversibility in high-impact climate change events in the presence of environmental tipping points. EU FP7 COMPLEX Report, D5.2. [publisher-version]
  • Filatova, T., Moghayer, S., Arto, I., Belete, G., Dhavala, K., Hasselmann, K., Kovalevsky, D., Niamir, L., Bulavskaya, T. & Voinov, A. (2014). Dynamics of climate-energy-economy systems: development of a methodological framework for an integrated system of models. EU FP7 COMPLEX Report, D5.3.
  • Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2013). Out-of-equilibrium actor-based system-dynamic modeling of the economics of climate change. In GSS Preparatory Workshop for the 3rd Open Global Systems Science Conference (2014) Beijing, China: . [any-fulltext]
  • Moghayer, S., Capellán-Pérez, I., Arto, I., Markandya, A., González-Eguino, M., Flatova, T., Pinouche, F., Chahim, M., Kovalevsky, D. & Hasselmann, K. (2013). State of the art review of climate-energy-economic modeling approaches. EU FP7 COMPLEX Report, D5.1. [publisher-version]
  • von Storch, H., Barkhordarian, A., Hasselmann, K. & Zorita , E. (2013). Can climate models explain the recent stagnation in global warming? (unpubl. manuscript). [any-fulltext]
  • von Storch, H. & Olbers, D. (2007). Interview mit Klaus Hasselmann am 15. Februar 2006. Geesthacht: GKSS-Forschungszentrum.
  • von Storch, H. & Hasselmann, K. (2003). Interview mit Reimar Lüst - 2. Dezember 2002. Geesthacht: GKSS.
  • Welp, M., Hasselmann, K. & Jaeger, C. (2003). Climate change and paths to sustainability: the role of science based stakeholder dialogues. Reference Magazine, 19, 8-13. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (2002). Der Kyoto-Prozess zum Klimaschutz: Hintergründe und Entwicklungsoptionen aus Sicht der Klimaforschung. In Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung als Beitrag zu Klimaschutz und Energieeinsparung (pp.7-16). Braunschweig: Cramer. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (2001). Langfristige Perspektiven des Klimaschutzes. In Instrumente des Umweltschutzes im Wirkungsverbund : interdisziplinäres Kolloquium (pp.326-337). Baden-Baden: Nomos. [table-of-contents][publisher-version]
  • Johannessen, O., Sandven, S., Sagen, H., Hamre, T., Haugen, V., Wadhams, P., Kaletzky, A., Davis, N., Hasselmann, K., Maier-Reimer, E., Mikolajewicz, U., Soldatov, V., Bobylev, L., Esipov, I., Evert, E. & Naugolnykh, K. (2001). Acoustic Monitoring of the Ocean Climate in the Arctic Ocean (AMOC): Final Report. NERSC Technical Report, 198. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (2000). (Über)Leben auf dem Raumschiff Erde. In Adamski, H. (Eds.), Der Gott der Fakultäten (pp.181-202). Münster: Lit.
  • Hasselmann, K. (2000). Hans Hinzpeter : 31.1. 1921 - 15.12. 1999. Jahresbericht / Joachim-Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., 53-54.
  • Hasselmann, K., Lehner, S. & Schulz-Stellenfleth, J. (2000). FEME ESA Report: ERS SAR Observations of ocean waves in the marginal ice zone.
  • Hasselmann, K. & Cubasch, U. (1999). Climate and its influential factors, especially the anthropogenic enhancement of the greenhouse effect and its possible impacts: Results of the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC. In Hacker, J. & Pelchen, A. (Eds.), Goals and Economic Instruments for the Achievement of Global Warming Mitigation in Europe: Proceedings of the EU Advanced Study Course held in Berlin, Germany, July 1997 (pp.3-26). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
  • Hasselmann, S., Bennefeld, C., Hasselmann, K., Graber, H., Jackson, F., Hauser, D., Vachon, P., Walsh, E. & Long, R. (1998). Intercomparison of two-dimensional wave spectra obtained from microwave instruments, buoys and WAModel simulations during the surface wave dynamics experiment. Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 258. [publisher-version]
  • Tett, S., Mitchell, J., Hasselmann, K. & Komen, G. (1998). Attribution beyond discernible - Workshop aims. In Tett, S. & et al, . (Eds.), Attribution: Beyond discernible. Euroclivar Workshop on Climate Change Detection and Attribution (Report Eucliv; 10) (pp.31-41). [any-fulltext]
  • Tett, S., Mitchell, J., Hasselmann, K. & Komen, G. (Eds.). (1998). Attribution: Beyond discernible. Euroclivar Workshop on Climate Change Detection and Attribution. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). Die Launen der Medien: eine Antwort auf die Kritik an der Klimaforschung. Die ZEIT(32/1997).
  • Hasselmann, K. (1997). Globale Erwärmung und optimierte Klimaschutzstrategien. In Koch, H.-J. (Eds.), Klimaschutz im Recht (pp.7-27). Baden-Baden: Nomos. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1996). Optimierte Klimaschutzstrategien. In Klima - Umwelt - Gesellschaft : ein interdisziplinäres Seminar der Universität Hamburg am 16./17. November 1995 im Haus Rissen (pp.9-23). Hamburg: Universität Hamburg. [publisher-version]
  • Heimbach, P., Hasselmann, S., Brüning, C. & Hasselmann, K. (1996). Application of wave spectral retrievals from ERS-1 wave mode data for improved wind and wave field analyses. In Proceedings of the Second ERS Applications workshop (pp.303-308). Noordwijk: ESA / ESTAC. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Bengtsson, L., Cubasch, U., Hegerl, G., Rodhe, H., Roeckner, E., von Storch, H., Voss, R. & Waszkewitz, J. (1995). Detection of anthropogenic climate change using a fingerprint method. In Ditlevsen, P. (Eds.), Modern dynamical meteorology: Proceedings from a symposium in honor of Prof. Aksel Wiin-Nielsen (pp.203-221). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. Department of Geophysics. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1995). The metron model: Elements of a unified deterministic theory of fields and particles. Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 172. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. & Sell, W. (1995). DKRZ 2000+: Proposal for the development of DKRZ into the next century (unpublished). [abstract]
  • Santer, B., Cubasch, U., Hasselmann, K., Brüggemann, W., Höck, H., Maier-Reimer, E. & Mikolajewicz, U. (1995). Selecting components of a greenhouse-gas fingerprint. In Global change: Proceedings of the first Demetra meeting held at Chianciano Terme, Italy from 28 to 31 October 1991 (pp.164-183). Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Community. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Sell, W., Blum, W. & Thierbach, D. (1994). Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1993). Das Klimamodell: zu den Grundlagen des Klimasystems. In Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Eds.), Klima: Vorträge im Wintersemester 1992/93 [Sammelband der Vorträge des Studium Generale] (pp.9-29). Heidelberg: Heidelberger Verl.-Anst.. [publisher-version]
  • Pennell, W., Bamett, T., Hasselmann, K., Holland, W., Karl, T., North, G., MacCracken, M., Moss, M., Pearman, G., Rasmusson, E., Santer, B., Smith, W., von Storch, H., Switzer, P. & Zwiers, F. (1993). The detection of anthropogenic climate change. In Proceedings of the Fourth Symposion on Global Change Studies (pp.21-28). American Meteorological Society. [publisher-version]
  • Graßl, H., Hasselmann, K. & Latif, M. (1992). Stand der Klimaforschung in der Bundesrepublik. In Aktive Forschung und Technologie in Deutschland (pp.30-32). [publisher-version]
  • Latif, M. (Eds.). (1991). Strategies for future climate research: A collection of papers presented at the birthday colloquium in honour of Klaus Hasselmann's 60th anniversary. Hamburg: Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S. & Barthel, K. (1990). Europan Space Agency Contract Report use of a wave model as a validation tool for ERS-1 AMI Wave products and as an input for the ERS-1 Wind Retrieval Algorithms. Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 055. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K., Hasselmann, S., Bauer, E., Brüning, C., Lehner, S., Graber, H. & Lionello, P. (1988). Development of a Satellite SAR Image Spectra and Altimeter Wave Height Data Assimilation System for ERS-1. Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 019. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1988). Übersicht über die Klimadynamik. Promet, 18(1-3 - Das Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie), 2-4. [publisher-version]
  • Oberhuber, J. & Hasselmann, K. (1988). Ozeanmodelle. Promet, 18(Nos. 1-3 - Das Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie), 14-21. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1986). Data assimilation in wave models. In Report of the Workshop on Assimilation of Satellite Wind and Wave Data in Numerical Weather and Wave Prediction Models (pp.29-32). [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1986). The influence of wave-ripple interactions in wind-scatterometer algorithms. In Report of the Workshop on Assimilation of Satellite Wind and Wave Data in Numerical Weather and Wave Prediction Models (pp.41-46). [publisher-version]
  • Young, I., Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1985). Calculation of the nonlinear wave-wave interactions in cross seas. Hamburger Geophysikalische Einzelschriften - Reihe A: Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 74. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1984). Physical oceanography, climate and marine forecasting. In Bruun memorial lectures, 1982: Ocean science for the year 2000 (pp.13-23). Paris: UNESCO. [publisher-version]
  • Maier-Reimer, E., Müller, D., Olbers, D., Willebrand, J. & Hasselmann, K. (1982). Ein Modell der ozeanischen Zirkulation zur Untersuchung von Klimaschwankungen. Hamburg: Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie. [publisher-version]
  • Maier-Reimer, E., Müller, D., Olbers, D., Willebrand, J. & Hasselmann, K. (1982). An ocean circulation model for climate variability studies. Hamburg: Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, S. & Hasselmann, K. (1981). A symmetrical method of computing the nonlinear transfer in a gravity wave spectrum. Hamburger Geophysikalische Einzelschriften : Reihe A, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 52. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1977). The dynamical coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean. In The influence of the ocean on climate (Reports on marine science affairs ; 11) (pp.31-44). Genf: WMO. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1972). The energy balance of wind waves and the remote sensing problem. In Apel, J. (Eds.), Sea Surface Topography from Space, Vol. II (pp.25-1-25-55). Washington: US Government Printing Office. [publisher-version]
  • Sell, W. & Hasselmann, K. (1972). Computations of nonlinear energy transfer for JONSWAP and empirical wind wave spectra. Hamburg: Institut für Geophysik, Universität Hamburg. [any-fulltext]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1970). Der Sonnenwind. Jahrbuch der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, 22-25. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1961). Interpretation of Phillips' wave growth mechanism. In Ocean wave spectra: Proceedings of a conference (pp.nicht im Konferenzband enthalten-).
  • Hasselmann, K. (1960). Über den Einfluß nichtlinearer Wechselwirkungen auf die Energieverteilung in einem Seegangsspektrum. Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, 81. [publisher-version]
  • Hasselmann, K. (1960). Decay of wave-induced velocity fluctuations in the small HSVA Tank. Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, 66.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1958). Zur Deutung der dreifachen Geschwindigkeitskorrelationen der isotropen Turbulenz. Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, 84.
  • Hasselmann, K. (1955). Potentialtheoretische Druckverteilung an einigen drehsymmetrischen Halbkörpern. Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, 29.
Klaus and Susanne Hasselmann on December 7, 2021 at the granting of the Nobel Prize in Berlin.
Klaus and Susanne Hasselmann on December 7, 2021 at the granting of the Nobel Prize in Berlin. © Nobel Prize Outreach, Photo: B. Ludewig

The scientific career of Klaus Hasselmann:

Pioneers of Science
The Nobel Prize laureates of the Max Planck Society

The human imprint in meteorological background noise
From the the MPG Website

Nobel Prize in Physics for Prof. Klaus Hasselmann - a look back to the future
A summary by Michael Böttinger, DKRZ

Poster 2021

Physics for climate and other complex phenomena
Credit: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Download pdf

 

Videos 2021

Nobel Lecture: "The human footprint of climate change".
Nobel Symposium with Hasselmann and List in the Swedish Embassy, presented by Ranga Yogeshwar. (Only in German)
Award ceremony in the Harnack House, Berlin. (Only in German)
Press conference at the MPI-M on October 5, 2021.
Let's talk about... Klaus and Susanne Hasselmann with Bjorn Stevens.
Klaus Hasselmann and Bjorn Stevens on the Nobel Prize in Physics and simple models on occasion of the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow 2021 (COP26).