Thomas Kleinen

Department Climate Dynamics
Group Climate-Biosphere Interactions
Position Scientist
phone +49 40 41173-140
Room G 1714


Research Interests

I investigate the "wet" carbon cycle, the terrestrial carbon cycle under water-dominated conditions. I prefer millennia over decades, if I get a choice, and I have modelled climate for intervals from MIS 11 to several millennia into the future.

The wet carbon cycle consists of three elements: The frozen carbon cycle (permafrost carbon), the anaerobic carbon cycle (peatlands) and the methane cycle. Modelling challenges here are wetland estimation, carbon storage in peatlands, permafrost carbon, soil methane cycling and global methane cycling.

We investigate the full methane cycle over timescales of millennia. Within the Palmod, we developed a full representation of the natural methane cycle in MPI-ESM: We consider wetlands, wildfires, termites and herbivores as methane sources, and also determine the soil and atmospheric sinks of methane, the latter together with the MPI for chemistry.

We have investigated methane from the LGM to a millennium into the future, leading to two superb publications.

I regularly contribute to the Global Carbon Project Global Methane Budget. Here, we aim to determine the global methane budget and estimate all sources and sinks, regularly updated every couple of years.

I provide terrestrial wetland methane emissions using from two models, MPI-ESM / JSBACH and CLIMBER2-LPJ.

In the high northern latitudes, a substantial amount of carbon, of the order of 1300 PgC, is stored in permafrost, permanently frozen soils.

I investigate how these carbon storage in these soils changes, by representing all processes relevant to carbon cycling under permafrost conditions in our land surface model JSBACH.

Peatlands have accumulated large stores of carbon, some 650 PgC worldwide. Under water-logged conditions, carbon cycling is reduced due to oxygen depletion, thus strongly slowing carbon decomposition. We pioneered the representation of peatlands in our Land Surface Models, thus investigating their accumulation and storage of carbon, as well as their role in the global carbon cycle.

I am active in the PAGES C-Peat network.

From earlier in my career, I retain an interest in Tipping points, and especially Early Warning Signals.


I regularly teach one class:

  • Terrestrial Ecosystem Modelling in the Integrated Climate System Science MSc programme.

We do provide lecture slides, please contact me for access.

Previously I have also taught regularly:

  • The dynamical palaeoclimatology course in the Meteorology and Integrated Climate System Science MSc programmes.
  • Block seminars on climate decision making under uncertainty at TU München.

2005: PhD in theoretical physics, Potsdam University, Germany.
2000: Diplom in physics, Potsdam University, Germany.

since 01/01/2009: Senior Research Scientist, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany.
01/01/2008 - 31/12/2008: Research Scientist, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.
01/08/2005 - 31/12/2007: Senior Research Associate, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
01/02/2001 - 31/07/2005: Research Associate, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.


  • Specht, N., Claussen, M. & Kleinen, T. (submitted). Dynamic interaction of lakes, climate and vegetation over northern Africa during the mid-Holocene. Climate of the Past. [supplementary-material]

  • Weitzel, N., Andres, H., Baudouin, J.-P., Kapsch, M.-L., Mikolajewicz, U., Jonkers, L., Bothe, O., Ziegler, E., Kleinen, T., Paul, A. & Rehfeld, K. (2024). Towards spatio-temporal comparison of simulated and reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the last deglaciation. Climate of the Past, 20, 865-890. doi:10.5194/cp-20-865-2024 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Wunderling, N., von der Heydt, A., Aksenov, Y., Barker, S., Bastiaansen, R., Brovkin, V., Brunetti, M., Couplet, V., Kleinen, T., Lear, C., Lohmann, J., Roman-Cuesta, R., Sinet, S., Swingedouw, D., Winkelmann, R., Anand, P., Barichivich, J., Bathiany, S., Baudena, M., Bruun, J., Chiessi, C., Coxall, H., Docquier, D., Dönges, J., Falkena, S., Klose, A., Obura, D., Rocha, J., Rynders, S., Steinert, N. & Willeit, M. (2024). Climate tipping point interactions and cascades: a review. Earth System Dynamics, 15, 41-74. doi:10.5194/esd-15-41-2024 [publisher-version]
  • Ito, A., Li, T., Melton, J., Tian, H., Kleinen, T., Wang, W., Zhang, Z., Joos, F., Ciais, P., Hopcroft, P., Beerling, D., Liu, X., Zhuang, Q., Zhu, Q., Peng, C., Cheng, K.-Y., Fluet-Chouinard, E., McNicol, G., Patra, P., Poulter, S., Sitch, B., Riley, W. & Zhu, Q. (2023). Cold-season methane fluxes simulated by GCP-CH4 models. Geophysical Research Letters, 50: e2023GL103037. doi:10.1029/2023GL103037 [publisher-version]
  • Rehder, Z., Kleinen, T., Kutzbach, L., Stepanenko, V., Langer, M. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Simulated methane emissions from Arctic ponds are highly sensitive to warming. Biogeosciences, 20, 2837-2855. doi:10.5194/bg-20-2837-2023 [supplementary-material][publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • de Vrese, P., Beckebanze, L., Galera, L., Holl, D., Kleinen, T., Kutzbach, L., Rehder, Z. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Sensitivity of Arctic CH4 emissions to landscape wetness diminished by atmospheric feedbacks. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01715-3 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kleinen, T., Gromov, S., Steil, B. & Brovkin, V. (2023). Atmospheric methane since the last glacial maximum was driven by wetland sources. Climate of the Past, 19, 1081-1099. doi:10.5194/cp-19-1081-2023 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Chang, K.-Y., Riley, W., Collier, N., McNicol, G., Fluet-Chouinard, E., Knox, S., Delwiche, K., Jackson, R., Poulter, B., Saunois, M., Chandra, N., Gedney, N., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Joos, F., Kleinen, T., Maggi, F., McNorton, J., Melton, J., Miller, P., Niwa, Y., Pasut, C., Patra, P., Peng, C., Peng, S., Segers, A., Tian, H., Tsuruta, A., Yao, Y., Yin, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, Z., Zhu, Q., Zhu, Q. & Zhuang, Q. (2023). Observational constraints reduce model spread but not uncertainty in global wetland methane emission estimates. Global Change Biology: early view. doi:10.1111/gcb.16755
  • Dallmeyer, A., Kleinen, T., Claussen, M., Weitzel, N., Cao, X. & Herzschuh, U. (2022). The deglacial forest conundrum. Nature Communications, 13: 6035. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-33646-6 [supplementary-material][multimedia][publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Merz, N., Hubig, A., Kleinen, T., Therre, S., Kaufmann, G. & Frank, N. (2022). How the climate shapes stalagmites – A comparative study of model and speleothem at the Sofular Cave, Northern Turkey. Frontiers in Earth Science, 10: 969211. doi:10.3389/feart.2022.969211 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Duque-Villegas, M., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V. & Kleinen, T. (2022). Effects of orbital forcing, greenhouse gases and ice sheets on Saharan greening in past and future multi-millennia. Climate of the Past, 18, 1897-1914. doi:10.5194/cp-18-1897-2022 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Specht, N., Claussen, M. & Kleinen, T. (2022). Simulated range of mid-Holocene precipitation changes to extended lakes and wetlands over North Africa. Climate of the Past, 18, 1035-1046. doi:10.5194/cp-18-1035-2022 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Qiu, C., Ciais, P., Zhu, D., Guenet, B., Chang, J., Chaudhary, N., Kleinen, T., Li, X., Müller, J., Xi, Y., Zhang, W., Ballantyne, A., Brewer, S., Brovkin, V., Charman, D., Gustafson, A., Gallego-Sala, A., Gasser, T., Holden, J., Joos, F., Kwon, M., Lauerwald, R., Miller, P., Peng, S., Page, S., Smith, B., Stocker, B., Sannel, A., Salmon, E., Schurgers, G., Shurpali, N., Wårlind, D. & Westermann, S. (2022). A strong mitigation scenario maintains climate neutrality of northern peatlands. One Earth, 5, 86-97. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2021.12.008 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Stavert, A., Saunois, M., Canadell, J., Poulter, B., Jackson, R., Regnier, P., Lauerwald, R., Raymond, P., Allen, G., Patra, P., Bergamaschi, P., Bousquet, P., Chandra, N., Ciais, P., Gustafson, A., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Kleinen, T., Maksyutov, S., McNorton, J., Melton, J., Müller, J., Niwa, Y., Peng, S., Riley, W., Segers, A., Tian, H., Tsuruta, A., Yin, Y., Zhang, Z., Zheng, B. & Zhuang, Q. (2022). Regional trends and drivers of the global methane budget. Global Change Biology, 28, 182-200. doi:10.1111/gcb.15901 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Gromov, S., Steil, B. & Brovkin, V. (2021). Atmospheric methane underestimated in future climate projections. Environmental Research Letters, 16: 094006. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac1814 [supplementary-material][publisher-version][any-fulltext]
  • Brovkin, V., Brook, E., Williams, J., Bathiany, S., Lenton, T., Barton, M., DeConto, R., Donges, J., Ganopolski, A., McManus, J., Praetorius, S., de Vernal, A., Abe-Ouchi, A., Cheng, H., Claussen, M., Crucifix, M., Gallopín, G., Iglesias, V., Kaufman, D., Kleinen, T., Lambert, F., van der Leeuw, S., Liddy, H., Loutre, M.-F., McGee, D., Rehfeld, K., Rhodes, R., Seddon, A., Trauth, M., Vanderveken, L. & Yu, Z. (2021). Past abrupt changes, tipping points and cascading impacts in the Earth system. Nature Geoscience, 14, 550-558. doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00790-5 [post-print]
  • Yu, Z., Joos, F., Bauska, T., Stocker, B., Fischer, H., Loisel, J., Brovkin, V., Hugelius, G., Nehrbass-Ahles, C., Kleinen, T. & Schmitt, J. (2021). No support for carbon storage of >1000 GtC in northern peatlands (Comment on the paper by Nichols & Peteet (2019) in Nature Geoscience, 12, 917-921). Nature Geoscience, 14, 465-467. doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00769-2 [publisher-version]
  • de Vrese, P., Stacke, T., Kleinen, T. & Brovkin, V. (2021). Diverging responses of high-latitude CO2 and CH4 emissions in idealized climate change scenarios. The Cryosphere, 15, 1097-1130. doi:10.5194/tc-15-1097-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Loisel, J., Gallego-Sala, A., Amesbury, M., Magnan, G., Anshari, G., Beilman, D., Benavides, J., Blewett, J., Camill, P., Charman, D., Chawchai, S., Hedgpeth, A., Kleinen, T., Korhola, A., Large, D., Mansilla, C., Müller, J., van Bellen, S., West, J., Yu, Z., Bubier, J., Garneau, M., Moore, T., Sannel, A., Page, S., Väliranta, M., Bechtold, M., Brovkin, V., Cole, L., Chanton, J., Christensen, T., Davies, M., Vleeschouwer, F., Finkelstein, S., Frolking, S., Gałka, M., Gandois, L., Girkin, N., Harris, L., Heinemeyer, A., Hoyt, A., Jones, M., Joos, F., Juutinen, S., Kaiser, K., Lacourse, T., Lamentowicz, M., Larmola, T., Leifeld, J., Lohila, A., Milner, A., Minkkinen, K., Moss, P., Naafs, B., Nichols, J., O’Donnell, J., Payne, R., Philben, M., Piilo, S., Quillet, A., Ratnayake, A., Roland, T., Sjögersten, S., Sonnentag, O., Swindles, G., Swinnen, W., Talbot, J., Treat, C., Valach, A. & Wu, J. (2020). Expert assessment of future vulnerability of the global peatland carbon sink. Nature Climate Change, 11, 70-77. doi:10.1038/s41558-020-00944-0
  • Saunois, M., Stavert, A., Poulter, B., Bousquet, P., Canadell, J., Jackson, R., Raymond, P., Dlugokencky, E., Houweling, S., Patra, P., Ciais, P., Arora, V., Bastviken, D., Bergamaschi, P., Blake, D., Brailsford, G., Bruhwiler, L., Carlson, K., Carrol, M., Castaldi, S., Chandra, N., Crevoisier, C., Crill, P., Covey, K., Curry, C., Etiope, G., Frankenberg, C., Gedney, N., Hegglin, M., Höglund-Isakson, L., Hugelius, G., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Jensen, K., Joos, F., Kleinen, T., Krummel, P., Langenfelds, R., Laruelle, G., Liu, L., Machida, T., Maksyutov, S., McDonald, K., McNorton, J., Miller, P., Melton, J., Morino, I., Müller, J., Murgia-Flores, F., Naik, V., Niwa, Y., Noce, S., O'Doherty, S., Parker, R., Peng, C., Peng, S., Peters, G., Prigent, C., Prinn, R., Ramonet, M., Regnier, P., Riley, W., Rosentreter, J., Segers, A., Simpson, I., Shi, H., Smith, S., Steele, P., Thornton, B., Tian, H., Tohjima, Y., Tubiello, F., Tsuruta, A., Viovy, N., Voulgarakis, A., Weber, T., van Weele, M., van der Werf, G., Weiss, R., Worthy, D., Wunch, D., Yin, Y., Yoshida, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Zheng, B., Zhu, Q., Zhu, Q. & Zhuang, Q. (2020). The Global Methane Budget: 2000–2017. Earth System Science Data, 12, 1561-1623. doi:10.5194/essd-12-1561-2020 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kleinen, T., Mikolajewicz, U. & Brovkin, V. (2020). Terrestrial methane emissions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the preindustrial period. Climate of the Past, 16, 575-595. doi:10.5194/cp-16-575-2020 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Alexandrov, G., Brovkin, V., Kleinen, T. & Yu, Z. (2020). The capacity of northern peatlands for long-term carbon sequestration. Biogeosciences, 17, 47-54. doi:10.5194/bg-17-47-2020 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Mauritsen, T., Bader, J., Becker, T., Behrens, J., Bittner, M., Brokopf, R., Brovkin, V., Claussen, M., Crueger, T., Esch, M., Fast, I., Fiedler, S., Popke, D., Gayler, V., Giorgetta, M., Goll, D., Haak, H., Hagemann, S., Hedemann, C., Hohenegger, C., Ilyina, T., Jahns, T., Jiménez de la Cuesta Otero, D., Jungclaus, J., Kleinen, T., Kloster, S., Kracher, D., Kinne, S., Kleberg, D., Lasslop, G., Kornblueh, L., Marotzke, J., Matei, D., Meraner, K., Mikolajewicz, U., Modali, K., Möbis, B., Müller, W., Nabel, J., Nam, C., Notz, D., Nyawira, S., Paulsen, H., Peters, K., Pincus, R., Pohlmann, H., Pongratz, J., Popp, M., Raddatz, T., Rast, S., Redler, R., Reick, C., Rohrschneider, T., Schemann, V., Schmidt, H., Schnur, R., Schulzweida, U., Six, K., Stein, L., Stemmler, I., Stevens, B., von Storch, J.-S., Tian, F., Voigt, A., de Vrese, P., Wieners, K.-H., Wilkenskjeld, S., Roeckner, E. & Winkler, A. (2019). Developments in the MPI-M Earth System Model version 1.2 (MPI-ESM1.2) and its response to increasing CO2. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11, 998-1038. doi:10.1029/2018MS001400 [publisher-version]
  • Treat, C., Kleinen, T., Broothaerts, N., Dalton, A., Dommain, R., Douglas, T., Drexler, J., Finkelstein, S., Grosse, G., Hope, G., Hutchings, J., Jones, M., Kuhry, P., Lacourse, T., Lähteenoja, O., Loisel, J., Notebaert, B., Payne, R., Peteet, D., Sannel, A., Stelling, J., Strauss, J., Swindles, G., Talbot, J., Tarnocai, C., Verstraeten, G., Williams, C., Xia, Z., Yu, Z., Väliranta, M., Hättestrand, M., Alexanderson, H. & Brovkin, V. (2019). Widespread global peatland establishment and persistence over the last 130,000 y. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 4822-4827. doi:10.1073/pnas.1813305116 [publisher-version][supplementary-material][supplementary-material][supplementary-material]
  • Schneider von Deimling, T., Kleinen, T., Hugelius, G., Knoblauch, C., Beer, C. & Brovkin, V. (2018). Long-term deglacial permafrost carbon dynamics in MPI-ESM. Climate of the Past, 14, 2011-2036. doi:10.5194/cp-14-2011-2018 [publisher-version]
  • Viehberg, F., Just, J., Dean, J., Wagner, B., Franz, S., Klasen, N., Kleinen, T., Ludwig, P., Asrat, A., Lamb, H., Leng, M., Rethemeyer, J., Milodowski, A., Claussen, M. & Schäbitz, F. (2018). Environmental change during MIS4 and MIS3 opened corridors in the Horn of Africa for Homo sapiens expansion. Quaternary Science Reviews, 202, 139-153. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.09.008 [publisher-version]
  • Gasser, T., Kechiar, M., Ciais, P., Burke, E., Kleinen, T., Zhu, D., Huang, Y., Ekici, A. & Obersteiner, M. (2018). Path-dependent reduction in CO2 emission budgets caused by permafrost carbon release. Nature Geoscience, 11, 830-835. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0227-0
  • Kleinen, T. & Brovkin, V. (2018). Pathway-dependent fate of permafrost region carbon. Environmental Research Letters, 13: 094001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad824 [publisher-version][supplementary-material][supplementary-material]
  • Müller, W., Jungclaus, J., Mauritsen, T., Baehr, J., Bittner, M., Budich, R., Bunzel, F., Esch, M., Ghosh, R., Haak, H., Ilyina, T., Kleinen, T., Kornblueh, L., Li, H., Modali, K., Notz, D., Pohlmann, H., Roeckner, E., Stemmler, I., Tian, F. & Marotzke, J. (2018). A higher-resolution version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM 1.2 - HR). Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10, 1383 -1413. doi:10.1029/2017MS001217 [publisher-version]
  • Castro-Morales , K., Kleinen, T., Kaiser, S., Zaehle, S., Kittler, F., Kwon, M., Beer, C. & Göckede, M. (2018). Year-round simulated methane emissions from a permafrost ecosystem in Northeast Siberia. Biogeosciences, 15, 2691-2722. doi:10.5194/bg-15-2691-2018 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Raivonen, M., Smolander, S., Backman, L., Susiluoto, J., Aalto, T., Markkanen, T., Mäkelä, J., Rinne, J., Peltola, O., Aurela, M., Tomasic, M., Li, X., Larmola, T., Juutinen, S., Tuittila, E.-S., Heimann, M., Sevanto, S., Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V. & Vesala, T. (2017). HIMMELI v1.0: HelsinkI Model of MEthane buiLd-up and emIssion for peatlands. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 4665-4691. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-4665-2017 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Saunois, M., Bousquet, P., Poulter, B., Peregon, A., Ciais, P., Canadell, J., Dlugokencky, E., Etiope, G., Bastviken, D., Houweling, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Tubiello, F., Castaldi, S., Jackson, R., Alexe, M., Arora, V., Beerling, D., Bergamaschi, P., Blake, D., Brailsford, G., Bruhwiler, L., Crevoisier, C., Crill, P., Covey, K., Frankenberg, C., Gedney, N., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Joos, F., Kim, H.-S., Kleinen, T., Krummel, P., Lamarque, J.-F., Langenfelds, R., Locatelli, R., Machida, T., Maksyutov, S., Melton, J., Morino, I., Naik, V., O'Doherty, S., Parmentier, F.-J., Patra, P., Peng, C., Peng, S., Peters, G., Pison, I., Prinn, R., Ramonet, M., Riley, W., Saito, M., Santini, M., Schroeder, R., Simpson, I., Spahni, R., Takizawa, A., Thornton, B., Tian, H., Tohjima, Y., Viovy, N., Voulgarakis, A., Weiss, R., Wilton, D., Wiltshire, A., Worthy, D., Wunch, D., Xu, X., Yoshida, Y., Zhang, B., Zhang, Z. & Zhu, Q. (2017). Variability and quasi-decadal changes in the methane budget over the period 2000–2012. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 11135-11161. doi:10.5194/acp-17-11135-2017 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Poulter, B., Bousquet, P., Canadell, J., Ciais, P., Peregon, A., Saunois, M., Arora, V., Beerling, D., Brovkin, V., Jones, C., Joos, F., Gedney, N., Ito, A., Kleinen, T., Koven, C., MacDonald, K., Melton, J., Peng, C., Peng, S., Schroder, R., Prigent, C., Riley, W., Saito, M., Spahni, R., Tian, H., Taylor, L., Viovy, N., Wilton, D., Wiltshire, A., Xu, X. & Zhang, Z. (2017). Global wetland contribution to 2000-2012 atmospheric methane growth rate dynamics. Environmental Research Letters, 12: 094013. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8391 [publisher-version]
  • Kaiser, S., Göckede, M., Castro-Morales, K., Knoblauch, C., Ekici, A., Kleinen, T., Zubrzycki, S., Sachs, T. & Wille, C. (2017). Process-based modelling of the methane balance in periglacial landscapes (JSBACH-methane). Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 333-358. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-333-201 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V. & Munhoven, G. (2016). Modelled interglacial carbon cycle dynamics during the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Climate of the Past, 12, 2145-2160. doi:10.5194/cp-12-2145-2016 [publisher-version]
  • Alexandrov, G., Brovkin, V. & Kleinen, T. (2016). The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum. Scientific Reports, 6: 24784. doi:10.1038/srep24784 [publisher-version]
  • Brovkin, V., Brücher, T., Kleinen, T., Zaehle, S., Joos, F., Roth, R., Spahni, R., Schmitt, J., Fischer, H., Leuenberger, M., Stone, E., Ridgwell, A., Chappellaz, J., Kehrwald, N., Barbante, C., Blunier, T. & Dahl Jensen, D. (2016). Comparative carbon cycle dynamics of the present and last interglacial. Quaternary Science Reviews, 137, 15-32. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.01.028 [publisher-version][supplementary-material][supplementary-material]
  • Saunois, M., Bousquet, P., Poulter, B., Peregon, A., Ciais, P., Canadell, J., Dlugokencky, E., Etiope, G., Bastviken, D., Houweling, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Tubiello, F., Castaldi, S., Jackson, R., Alexe, M., Arora, V., Beerling, D., Bergamaschi, P., Blake, D., Brailsford, G., Brovkin, V., Bruhwiler, L., Crevoisier, C., Crill, P., Curry, C., Frankenberg, C., Gedney, N., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Ishizawa, M., Ito, A., Joos, F., Kim, H.-S., Kleinen, T., Krummel, P., Lamarque, J.-F., Langenfelds, R., Locatelli, R., Machida, T., Maksyutov, S., McDonald, K., Marshall , J., Melton, J., Morino, I., O'Doherty, S., Parmentier, F.-J., Patra, P., Peng, C., Peng, S., Peters, G., Pison, I., Prigent, C., Prinn, R., Ramonet, M., Riley, W., Saito, M., Schroder, R., Simpson, I., Spahni, R., Steele, P., Takizawa, A., Thorton, B., Tian, H., Tohjima, Y., Viovy, N., Voulgarakis, A., van Weele, M., van der Werf, G., Weiss, R., Wiedinmyer, C., Wilton, D., Wiltshire, A., Worthy, D., Wunch, D., Xu, X., Yoshida, Y., Zhang, B., Zhang, Z. & Zhu, Q. (2016). The Global Methane Budget: 2000–2012. Earth System Science Data, 8, 697-751. doi:10.5194/essd-8-697-2016 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Cresto-Aleina, F., Runkle, B., Brücher, T., Kleinen, T. & Brovkin, V. (2016). Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 915-926. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-915-2016 [publisher-version]
  • Cresto-Aleina, F., Runkle, B., Kleinen, T., Kutzbach, L., Schneider, J. & Brovkin, V. (2015). Modeling micro-topographic controls on boreal peatland hydrology and methane fluxes. Biogeosciences, 12, 5689-5704. doi:10.5194/bg-12-5689-2015 [publisher-version]
  • Bohn, T., Melton, J., Ito, A., Kleinen, T., Spahni, R., Stocker, B., Zhang, B., Zhu, X., Schroeder, R., Glagolev, M., Maksyutov, S., Brovkin, V., Chen, G., Denisov, S., Eliseev, A., Gallego-Sala, A., McDonald, K., Rawlins, M., Riley, W., Subin, Z., Tian, H., Zhuang, Q. & Kaplan, J. (2015). WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia. Biogeosciences, 12, 3321-3349. doi:10.5194/bg-12-3321-2015 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kleinen, T., Hildebrandt, S., Prange, M., Rachmayani, R., Müller, S., Bezrukova, E., Brovkin, V. & Tarasov, P. (2014). The climate and vegetation of Marine Isotope Stage 11 - model results and proxy-based reconstructions at global and regional scale. Quaternary International, 348, 247-265. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.12.028
  • Claussen, M., Bathiany, S., Brovkin, V. & Kleinen, T. (2013). Simulated climate-vegetation interaction in semi-arid regions affected by plant diversity. Nature Geoscience, 6, 954-958. doi:10.1038/ngeo1962
  • Schuur, E., Abbott, B., Bowden, W., Brovkin, V., Camill, P., Canadell, J., Chanton, J., Chapin III, F., Christensen, T., Clais, P., Crosby, B., Czimczik, C., Grosse, G., Harden, J., Hayes, D., Hugelius, G., Jastrow, J., Jones, J., Kleinen, T., Koven, C., Krinner, G., Kuhry, P., Lawrence, D., McGuire, A., Natali, S., O'Donnell, J., Ping, C., Riley, W., Rinke, A., Romanovsky, V., Sannel, A., Schädel, C., Schaefer, K., Sky, J., Subin, Z., Tarnocal, C., Turetsky, M., Waldrop, M., Walther Anthony, K., Wickland, K., Wilson, C. & Zimov, S. (2013). Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change. Climatic Change, 119, 359-374. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0730-7 [publisher-version]
  • Wania, R., Melton, J., Hodson, E., Poulter, B., Ringeval, B., Spahni, R., Bohn, T., Avis, C., Chen, G., Eliseev, A., Hopcroft, P., Riley, W., Subin, Z., Tian, H., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Yu, Z., Singarayer, J., Zürcher, S., Lettenmaier, D., Beerling, D., Denisov, S., Prigent, C., Papa, F. & Kaplan, J. (2013). Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: methodology of a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP). Geoscientific Model Development, 6, 617-641. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-617-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Schuldt, R., Brovkin, V., Kleinen, T. & Winderlich, J. (2013). Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands: an earth system model approach. Biogeosciences, 10, 1659-1674. doi:10.5194/bg-10-1659-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Joos, F., Roth, R., Fuglevestvedt, J., Peters, G., Enting, I., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V., Burke, M., Eby, M., Edwards, N., Friedrich, T., Frölicher, T., Halloran, P., Holden, P., Jones, C., Kleinen, T., Mackenzie, F., Matsumoto, K., Meinshausen, M., Plattner, G.-K., Reisinger, A., Segschneider, J., Shaffer, G., Steinacher, M., Strassmann, K., Tanaka, K., Timmermann, A. & Weaver, A. (2013). Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics:a multi-model analysis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 2793-2825. doi:10.5194/acp-13-2793-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Melton, J., Wania, R., Hodson, E., Poulter, B., Ringeval, B., Spahni, R., Bohn, T., Avis, C., Beerling, D., Chen, G., Eliseev, A., Denisov, S., Hopcroft, P., Lettenmaier, D., Riley, W., Singarayer, J., Subin, Z., Tian, H., Zürcher, S., Brovkin, V., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Yu, Z. & Kaplan, J. (2013). Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model intercomparison project (WETCHIMP). Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788. doi:10.5194/bg-10-753-2013 [publisher-version]
  • Timmreck, C., Graf, H.-F., Zanchettin, D., Hagemann, S., Kleinen, T. & Krüger, K. (2012). Climate response to the Toba super-eruption: regional changes. Quaternary International, 258, 30-44. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.10.008
  • Brovkin, V., van Bodegom, P., Kleinen, T., Wirth, C., Cornwell, W., Cornelissen, J. & Kattge, J. (2012). Plant-driven variation in decomposition rates improves projections of global litter stock distribution. Biogeosciences, 9, 565-576. doi:10.5194/bg-9-565-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Varma, V., Prange, M., Merkel, U., Kleinen, T., Lohmann, G., Pfeiffer, M., Renssen, H., Wagner, A., Wagner, S. & Schulz, M. (2012). Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models. Climate of the Past, 8, 391-402. doi:10.5194/cp-8-391-2012 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V. & Schuldt, R. (2012). A dynamic model of wetland extent and peat accumulation: Results for the Holocene. Biogeosciences, 9, 235-248. doi:10.5194/bg-9-235-2012 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Tarasov, P., Brovkin, V., Andreev, A. & Stebich, M. (2011). Comparison of modeled and reconstructed changes in forest cover through the past 8000 years: Eurasian perspective. The Holocene, 21(5), 723-734. doi:10.1177/0959683610386980
  • Palastanga, V., van der Schrier, G., Weber, S., Kleinen, T., Briffa, K. & Osborn, T. (2011). Atmosphere and ocean dynamics: contributors to the European Little Ice Age ?. Climate Dynamics, 36, 973-987. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0751-0 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Brovkin, V., von Bloh, W., Archer, D. & Munhoven, G. (2010). Holocene carbon cycle dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters, 37: L2705. doi:10.1029/2009GL041391 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Osborn, T. & Briffa, K. (2009). Sensitivity of climate response to variations in freshwater hosing location. Ocean Dynamics, 59, 509-521. doi:10.1007/s10236-009-0189-2 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T. & Petschel-Held, G. (2007). Integrated assessment of changes in flooding probabilities due to climate change. Climatic Change, 81, 283-312. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9159-6
  • Held, H. & Kleinen, T. (2004). Detection of climate system bifurcations by degenerate fingerprinting. Geophysical Research Letters, 31: L23207. doi:10.1029/2004GL020972 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Held, H. & Petschel-Held, G. (2003). The potential role of spectral properties in detecting thresholds in the Earth system: application to the thermohaline circulation. Ocean Dynamics, 53, 53-63. doi:10.1007/s10236-002-0023-6

  • Kutzbach, L., Brovkin, V., Beer, C., Kleinen, T., de Vrese, P., Rödder, S. & Knoblauch, C. (2023). Physical process assessments - Permafrost thaw: effects on the remaining carbon budget. In Engels, A., Marotzke, J., Gonçalves Gresse, E., López-Rivera, A., Pagnone, A. & Wilkens , A. (Eds.), Hamburg Climate Futures Outlook 2023: The plausibility of a 1.5°C limit to global warming - social drivers and physical processes (pp.140-144). Hamburg: Cluster of Excellence Climate, Climatic Change, and Society (CLICCS). [publisher-version]
  • Gaillard, M.-J., Kleinen, T., Samuelsson, P., Nielsen, A., Bergh, J., Kaplan, J., Poska, A., Sandström, C., Strandberg, G., Trondman, A.-K. & Wramneby, A. (2015). Causes of regional change—land cover. In The BACC II Author Team (Eds.), Second assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin (pp.453-477). Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1_25 [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T., Bezrukova, E., Brovkin, V., Fischer, H., Hildebrandt, S., Müller, S., Prange, M., Rachmayani, R., Schmitt, J., Schneider, R., Schulz, M. & Tarasov, P. (2015). Comparison of climate and carbon cycle dynamics during Late Quaternary interglacials. In Schulz, M. & Paul, A. (Eds.), Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC) (pp.7-12). Cham: Springer.
  • Kleinen, T., Füssel, H.-M. & Bruckner, T. (2004). Vorsorgeprinzip und Klimawandel: Der Leitplankenansatz Handeln trotz Nichtwissen. In Böschen, S., Schneider , M. & Lerf, A. (Eds.), Handeln trotz Nichtwissen (pp.79-98). Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.

  • Kleinen, T. (2005). Stochastic information in the assessment of climate change. Phd Thesis, Ph.-D. Thesis. - Potsdam: Universität Potsdam. [publisher-version]
  • Kleinen, T. (2000). Zeitverhalten der thermohalinen Zirkulation unter Einfluß des anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes. Thesis, Dipl.-Arb. - Potsdam: Universität Potsdam. [publisher-version]