Tropical Cloud Observations Group

The Tropical Cloud Observations Group (TCO) collects and uses observations of tropical clouds and convection in the climate system. The aim of the group is to deepen the understanding and test hypotheses related to the role of clouds and convection mainly in the trades.

The trades are famous for their shallow "trade-wind" cumulus clouds. Because of their widespread occurrence, and therefore large statistical weight, shallow cumulus clouds have a nonnegligible impact on the shortwave radiation budget, hence on climate. Estimating their radiative effect in a global climate model, however, remains a challenge, not just because of their typical sizes, but also because their dependence on the state of the atmosphere is subtle.

In a nutshell, the TCO group works on increasing the knowledge of tropical clouds to help improving climate models.

Cloud Observatory and aircraft payload are the group's flagship activities

To achieve this the TCO group established and operates the Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO) since 2010 and was responsible for developing and equipping the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) with cloud observation instruments.

Over the last few years the group has also become more active in supporting ship-based measurements of tropical clouds, building on previous experiences supporting the marine aerosol network, that provides ship-borne aerosol measurements around the globe.

The Barbados Cloud Observatory

Established in 2010 in cooperation with Caribbean partners, the BCO routinely profiles clouds, precipitation, aerosol, water vapor and wind. At the BCO the group operates two state-of-the art cloud radars at different frequencies, different unique in-house developed multi-channel Raman Lidars, a wind-Lidar and a micro-wave Radiometer supported by a number of additional instrumentation. These instruments sense the atmosphere aloft and provide multiple information about the clouds and the state of the atmosphere. 

An increasing number of international guests and partnerships use the site as a platform for their own instrumentations. Furthermore we provide our data to an also increasing number of scientists that help exploiting the data.

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HALO the flying cloud observatory

The research aircraft HALO, the groups second flagship activity, has been developed into a remote sensing platform by the group. The group provides leadership, is directly responsible for a set of active and passive microwave remote sensing instruments. The group also teamed with other groups in Germany to expand the capacity of HALO for example through the development and certification of a new dropsonde system. Large scale measurement with dropsondes, devices dropped from aircraft to measure temperature, pressure and humidity on their way to the ground, are a core strategy of the latest and next field campaign in which the group utilizes HALO.

Additional innovations by the group are radiometric measurements for broadband irradiances and sea-surface temperatures, as well as both thermal and visible imagers.

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Data curation and scientific exploitation

As the group's experimental activities have become well established and the data collection matured, the group is increasingly focused on its curation, through the development of new data concepts, its scientific exploitation. The latter involves scientific hypotheses testing as well as model evaluation. It is not a coincidence that both phases of the DYAMOND project, the first intercomparison project of global storm-resolving models, were centered on intensive HALO observation periods.

The groups follows an open data policy and aims to make their data available to as many collaborating scientist as possible. Our recent research highlights include the use of observational insights in the variability of low-level cloudiness in the trades to evaluate numerical weather prediction and climate models. Also, we are working towards a better characterization and understanding of the trade-wind cumulus clouds in their role as precipitating shallow systems.
The data provided through the measurements facilitate the development of new methods to understand factors influencing meso-scale cloud patterns. For example, a machine learning algorithm has been trained to recognise and automatically detect different patterns of shallow convection [1].

These four previously identified patterns of meso-scale cloud organization in the trades — called Sugar, Gravel, Flowers, and Fish — are studied using long-term records of ground-based measurements, satellite observations and reanalyzes. [2]

A third study used dropsonde data to explain variability in the cloud activity that is not otherwise apparent in variations of large-scale environmental factors usually used to parameterize clouds [3].

In the coming years the group will focus on exploiting the measurements and develop a cloud atlas. The aim will be to combine different measures of cloudiness to be explored and linked to modeling.

[1] Rasp, S.; Schulz, H.; Bony, S.; Stevens, B. Combining Crowd-Sourcing and Deep Learning to Explore the Meso-Scale Organization of Shallow Convection. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.2020.

[2] Schulz, H.; Eastman, R.; Stevens, B. Characterization and Evolution of Organized Shallow Convection in the Trades. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres  2021, 126 (17). doi:10.1029/2021JD034575

[3] George, G., Stevens, B., Bony, S., Klingebiel, M. & Vogel, R. (2021). Observed impact of meso-scale vertical motion on cloudiness. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78, 2413-2427. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-20-0335.

Group members and publications

  • Schnitt, S., Foth, A., Kalesse-Los, H., Mech, M., Acquistapace, C., Jansen, F., Löhnert, U., Pospichal, B., Röttenbacher, J., Crewell, S. & Stevens, B. (2024). Ground- and ship-based microwave radiometer measurements during EUREC4A. Earth System Science Data, 16, 681-700. doi:10.5194/essd-16-681-2024 [publisher-version]
  • Stubenrauch, C., Kinne, S., Mandorli, G., Rossow, W., Winker, D., Ackerman, S., Chepfer, H., Di Girolamo, L., Garnier, A., Heidinger, A., Karlsson, K.-G., Meyer, K., Minnis, P., Platnick, S., Stengel, M., Sun-Mack, S., Veglio, P., Walther, A., Cai, X., Young, A. & Zhao, G. (2024). Lessons learned from the updated GEWEX cloud assessment database. Surveys in Geophysics: early access. doi:10.1007/s10712-024-09824-0 [publisher-version]
  • Weber, A., Kölling, T., Pörtge, V., Baumgartner, A., Rammeloo, C., Zinner, T. & Mayer, B. (2024). Polarization upgrade of specMACS: calibration and characterization of the 2D RGB polarization-resolving cameras. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 17, 1419-1439. doi:10.5194/amt-17-1419-2024 [publisher-version]
  • Windmiller, J. & Stevens, B. (2024). The inner life of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society: early view. doi:10.1002/qj.4610
  • Bruckert, J., Hoshyaripour, G., Hirsch, L., Horvath, A., Kahn, R., Kölling, T., Muser, L., Timmreck, C., Vogel, H., Wallis, S. & Vogel, B. (2023). Dispersion and aging of volcanic aerosols after the La Soufriere eruption in April 2021. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128: e2022JD037694. doi:10.1029/2022JD037694 [publisher-version]
  • George, G., Stevens, B., Bony , S., Vogel, R. & Naumann, A. (2023). Widespread shallow mesoscale circulations observed in the trades. Nature Geoscience, 16, 584-589. doi:10.1038/s41561-023-01215-1 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Hohenegger, C., Korn, P., Linardakis, L., Redler, R., Schnur, R., Adamidis, P., Bao, J., Bastin, S., Behravesh, M., Bergemann, M., Biercamp, J., Bockelmann, H., Brokopf, R., Brüggemann, N., Casaroli, L., Chegini, F., Datseris, G., Esch, M., George, G., Giorgetta, M., Gutjahr, O., Haak, H., Hanke, M., Ilyina, T., Jahns, T., Jungclaus, J., Kern, M., Klocke, D., Kluft, L., Kölling, T., Kornblueh, L., Kosukhin, S., Kroll, C., Lee, J., Mauritsen, T., Mehlmann, C., Mieslinger, T., Naumann, A., Paccini, L., Peinado, A., Praturi, D., Putrasahan, D., Rast, S., Riddick, T., Roeber, N., Schmidt, H., Schulzweida, U., Schütte, F., Segura, H., Shevchenko, R., Singh, V., Specht, M., Stephan, C., von Storch, J., Vogel, R., Wengel, C., Winkler, M., Ziemen, F., Marotzke, J. & Stevens, B. (2023). ICON-Sapphire: simulating the components of the Earth System and their interactions at kilometer and subkilometer scales. Geoscientific Model Development, 16, 779-811. doi:10.5194/gmd-16-779-2023 [publisher-version]
  • Pörtge, V., Kölling, T., Weber, A., Volkmer, L., Emde, C., Zinner, T., Forster, L. & Mayer, B. (2023). High-spatial-resolution retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution from polarized observations of the cloudbow. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 16, 645-667. doi:10.5194/amt-16-645-2023 [publisher-version]
  • Schulz, H. & Stevens, B. (2023). Evaluating large-domain, hecto-meter, large-eddy simulations of trade-wind clouds using EUREC4A data. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 15: e2023MS003648. doi:10.1029/2023MS003648 [publisher-version]
  • Wendisch, M., Brückner, M., Crewell, S., Ehrlich, A., Notholt, J., Lüpkes, C., Macke, A., Burrows, J., Rinke, A., Quaas, J., Maturilli, M., Schemann, V., Shupe, M., Akansu, E., Barrientos-Velasco, C., Bärfuss, K., Blechschmidt, A.-M., Block, K., Bougoudis, I., Bozem, H., Böckmann, C., Bracher, A., Bresson, H., Bretschneider, L., Buschmann, M., Chechin, D., Chylik, J., Dahlke, S., Deneke, H., Dethloff, K., Donth, T., Dorn, W., Dupuy, R., Ebell, K., Egerer, U., Engelmann, R., Eppers, O., Gerdes, R., Gierens, R., Gorodetskaya, I., Gottschalk, M., Griesche, H., Gryanik, V., Handorf, D., Harm-Altstädter, B., Hartmann, J., Hartmann, M., Heinold, B., Herber, A., Herrmann, H., Heygster, G., Höschel, I., Hofmann, Z., Hölemann, J., Hünerbein, A., Jafariserajehlou, S., Jäkel, E., Jacobi, C., Janout, M., Jansen, F., Jourdan, O., Jurányi, Z., Kalesse-Los, H., Kanzow, T., Käthner, R., Kliesch, L., Klingebiel, M., Knudsen, E., Kovács, T., Körtke, W., Krampe, D., Kretzschmar, J., Kreyling, D., Kulla, B., Kunkel, D., Lampert, A., Lauer, M., Lelli, L., von Lerber, A., Linke, O., Löhnert, U., Lonardi, M., Losa, S., Losch, M., Maahn, M., Mech, M., Mei, L., Mertes, S., Metzner, E., Mewes, D., Michaelis, J., Mioche, G., Moser, M., Nakoudi, K., Neggers, R., Neuber, R., Nomokonova, T., Oelker, J., Papakonstantinou-Presvelou, I., Pätzold, F., Pefanis, V., Pohl, C., van Pinxteren, M., Radovan, A., Rhein, M., Rex, M., Richter, A., Risse, N., Ritter, C., Rostosky, P., Rozanov, V., Ruiz Donoso, E., Saavedra-Garfias, P., Salzmann, M., Schacht, J., Schäfer, M., Schneider, J., Schnierstein, N., Seifert, P., Seo, S., Siebert, H., Soppa, M., Spreen, G., Stachlewska, I., Stapf, J., Stratmann, F., Tegen, I., Viceto, C., Voigt, C., Vountas, M., Walbröl, A., Walter, M., Wehner, B., Wex, H., Willmes, S., Zanatta, M. & Zeppenfeld, S. (2023). Atmospheric and surface processes, and feedback mechanisms determining Arctic amplification: A review of first results and prospects of the (AC)3 Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 104, E208-E242. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0218.1 [publisher-version]
  • Windmiller, J., Bao, J., Sherwood, S., Schanzer, T. & Fuchs, D. (2023). Predicting convective downdrafts from updrafts and environmental conditions in a global storm resolving simulation. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 15: e2022MS003048. doi:10.1029/2022MS003048 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
  • Li, X.-Y., Wang, H., Chen, J., Endo, S., George, G., Cairns, B., Chellappan, S., Zeng, X., Kirschler, S., Voigt, C., Sorooshian, A., Crosbie, E., Chen, G., Ferrare, R., Gustafson Jr., W., Hair, J., Kleb, M., Liu, H., Moore, R., Painemal, D., Robinson, C., Scarino, A., Shook, M., Shingler, T., Thornhill, K., Tornow, F., Xiao, H., Ziemba, L. & Zuidema, P. (2022). Large-eddy simulations of marine boundary layer clouds associated with cold-air outbreaks during the ACTIVATE Campaign. Part I: Case setup and sensitivities to large-scale forcings. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79, 73-100. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-21-0123.1 [publisher-version]
  • Mieslinger, T., Stevens, B., Kölling, T., Brath, M., Wirth, M. & Buehler, S. (2022). Optically thin clouds in the trades. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22, 6879-6898. doi:10.5194/acp-22-6879-2022 [pre-print][publisher-version]
  • Nuijens, L., Savazzi, A., de Boer, G., Brilouet, P.-E., George, G., Lothon, M. & Zhang, D. (2022). The frictional layer in the observed momentum budget of the trades. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 148, 3343-3365. doi:10.1002/qj.4364
  • Savazzi, A., Nuijens, L., Sandu, I., George, G. & Bechtold, P. (2022). The representation of the trade winds in ECMWF forecasts and reanalyses during EUREC4A. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22, 13049-13066. doi:10.5194/acp-22-13049-2022 [publisher-version]
  • Schäfer, M., Wolf, K., Ehrlich, A., Hallbauer, C., Jäkel, E., Jansen, F., Luebke, A., Müller, J., Thoböll, J., Röschenthaler, T., Stevens, B. & Wendisch, M. (2022). VELOX - a new thermal infrared imager for airborne remote sensing of cloud and surface properties. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 15, 1491-1509. doi:10.5194/amt-15-1491-2022 [publisher-version]
  • Schulz, H. (2022). C3ONTEXT: A Common Consensus on Convective OrgaNizaTion during the EUREC4A eXperimenT. Earth System Science Data, 14, 1233-1256. doi:10.5194/essd-14-1233-2022 [publisher-version]
  • Vogel, R., Albright, A., Vial, J., George, G., Stevens, B. & Bony, S. (2022). Strong cloud–circulation coupling explains weak trade cumulus feedback. Nature, 612, 696-700. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05364-y [publisher-version]
  • Aemisegger, F., Vogel, R., Graf, P., Dahinden, F., Villiger, L., Jansen, F., Bony, S., Stevens, B. & Wernli, H. (2021). How Rossby wave breaking modulates the water cycle in the North Atlantic trade wind region. Weather and Climate Dynamics, 2, 281-309. doi:10.5194/wcd-2-281-2021 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Bock, O., Bosser, P., Flamant, C., Doerflinger, E., Jansen, F., Fages, R., Bony, S. & Schnitt, S. (2021). Integrated water vapour observations in the caribbean arc from a network of ground-based gnss receivers during eurec4a. Earth System Science Data, 13, 2407-2436. doi:10.5194/essd-13-2407-2021 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • George , G., Stevens, B., Bony, S., Klingebiel, M. & Vogel, R. (2021). Observed impact of meso-scale vertical motion on cloudiness. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78, 2413-2427. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-20-0335.1 [publisher-version]
  • George, G. (2021). Observations of meso-scale circulation and its relationship with cloudiness in the Tropics. Phd Thesis, Hamburg: Universität Hamburg. Berichte zur Erdsystemforschung, 246. doi:10.17617/2.3340355 [publisher-version]
  • George, G., Stevens, B., Bony, S., Pincus, R., Fairall, C., Schulz, H., Kölling, T., Kalen, Q., Klingebiel, M., Konow, H., Lundry, A., Prange, M. & Radtke, J. (2021). JOANNE: Joint dropsonde Observations of the Atmosphere in tropical North atlaNtic mesoscale Environments. Earth System Science Data, 13, 5253-5272. doi:10.5194/essd-13-5253-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Hirsch, L. & Stevens, B. (2021). EUREC4A - ein Feldexperiment. Jahrbuch / Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 2021. [publisher-version]
  • Klingebiel, M., Konow, H. & Stevens, B. (2021). Measuring shallow convective mass flux profiles in the trade wind region. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78, 3205-3214. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-20-0347.1 [publisher-version]
  • Knapp, M., Kleinschek, R., Hase, F., Agustí-Panareda, A., Inness, A., Barré, J., Landgraf, J., Borsdorff, T., Kinne, S. & Butz, A. (2021). Shipborne measurements of XCO2, XCH4, and XCO above the Pacific Ocean and comparison to CAMS atmospheric analyses and S5P/TROPOMI. Earth System Science Data, 13, 199-211. doi:10.5194/essd-13-199-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Konow, H., Ewald, F., George, G., Jacob, M., Klingebiel, M., Kölling, T., Luebke, A., Mieslinger, T., Pörtge, V., Radtke, J., Schäfer, M., Schulz, H., Vogel, R., Wirth, M., Bony, S., Crewell, S., Ehrlich, A., Forster, L., Giez, A., Gödde, F., Groß, S., Gutleben, M., Hagen, M., Hirsch, L., Jansen, F., Lang, T., Mayer, B., Mech, M., Prange, M., Schnitt, S., Vial, J., Walbröl, A., Wendisch, M., Wolf, K., Zinner, T., Zöger, M., Ament , F. & Stevens, B. (2021). EUREC4A's HALO. Earth System Science Data, 13, 5545-5563. doi:10.5194/essd-13-5545-2021 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Quinn, P., Thompson, E., Coffman, D., Baidar, S., Bariteau, L., Bates, T., Bigorre, S., Brewer, A., de Boer, G., de Szoeke, S., Drushka, K., Foltz, G., Intrieri, J., Iyer, S., Fairall, C., Gaston, C., Jansen, F., Johnson, J., Krüger, O., Marchbanks, R., Moran, K., Noone, D., Pezoa, S., Pincus, R., Plueddemann, A., Pöhlker, M., Pöschl, U., Melendez, E., Royer, H., Szczodrak, M., Thomson, J., Upchurch, L., Zhang, C., Zhang, D. & Zuidema, P. (2021). Measurements from the RV Ronald H. Brown and related platforms as part of the Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC). Earth System Science Data, 13, 1759-1790. doi:10.5194/essd-13-1759-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Schulz, H. (2021). Meso-scale patterns of shallow convection in the trades. Phd Thesis, Hamburg: Universität Hamburg. Berichte zur Erdsystemforschung, 248. doi:10.17617/2.3357904 [publisher-version]
  • Schulz, H., Eastman, R. & Stevens, B. (2021). Characterization and evolution of organized shallow convection in the downstream North Atlantic trades. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126: e2021JD034575. doi:10.1029/2021JD034575 [publisher-version]
  • Schutgens, N., Dubovik, O., Hasekamp, O., Torres, O., Jethva, H., Leonard, P., Litvinov, P., Redemann, J., Shinozuka, Y., De Leeuw, G., Kinne, S., Popp, T., Schulz, M. & Stier, P. (2021). AEROCOM and AEROSAT AAOD and SSA study - Part 1: Evaluation and intercomparison of satellite measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21, 6895-6917. doi:10.5194/acp-21-6895-2021 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Stephan, C., Schnitt, S., Schulz, H., Bellenger, H., de Szoeke, S., Acquistapace, C., Baier , K., Dauhut, T., Laxenaire, R., Morfa Avalos, Y., Person, R., Meléndez, E., Bagheri, G., Böck, T., Daley, A., Güttler, J., Helfer, K., Los, S., Neuberger, A., Röttenbacher, J., Raeke, A., Ringel, M., Ritschel, M., Sadoulet, P., Schirmacher, I., Stolla, M., Wright, E., Charpentier, B., Doerenbecher, A., Wilson, R., Jansen, F., Kinne, S., Reverdin, G., Speich, S., Bony, S. & Stevens, B. (2021). Ship- and island-based atmospheric soundings from the 2020 EUREC4A field campaign. Earth System Science Data, 13, 491-514. doi:10.5194/essd-13-491-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Stevens, B., Bony, S., Farrell, D., Ament, F., Blyth, A., Fairall, C., Karstensen, J., Quinn, P., Speich, S., Acquistapace, C., Aemisegger, F., Albright, A., Bellenger, H., Bodenschatz, E., Caesar, K.-A., Chewitt-Lucas, R., de Boer, G., Delanoë, J., Denby, L., Ewald, F., Fildier, B., Forde, M., George, G., Gross, S., Hagen, M., Hausold, A., Heywood, K., Hirsch, L., Jacob, M., Jansen, F., Kinne, S., Klocke, D., Kölling, T., Konow, H., Lothon, M., Mohr, W., Naumann, A., Nuijens, L., Olivier, L., Pincus, R., Pöhlker, M., Reverdin, G., Roberts, G., Schnitt, S., Schulz, H., Siebesma, A., Stephan, C., Sullivan, P., Touzé-Peiffer, L., Vial, J., Vogel, R., Zuidema, P., Alexander, N., Alves, L., Arixi, S., Asmath, H., Bagheri, G., Baier , K., Bailey, A., Baranowski, D., Baron, A., Barrau, S., Barrett, P., Batier, F., Behrendt, A., Bendinger, A., Beucher, F., Bigorre, S., Blades, E., Blossey, P., Bock, O., Böing, S., Bosser, P., Bourras, D., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Bower, K., Branellec, P., Branger, H., Brennek, M., Brewer, A., Brilouet, P.-E., Brügmann, B., Buehler, S., Burke, E., Burton, R., Calmer, R., Canonici, J.-C., Carton, X., Cato, G., Charles, J., Chazette, P., Chen, Y., Chilinski, M., Choularton, T., Chuang, P., Clarke, S., Coe, H., Cornet, C., Coutris, P., Couvreux, F., Crewell, S., Cronin, T., Cui, Z., Cuypers, Y., Daley, A., Damerell, G., Dauhut, T., Deneke, H., Desbios, J.-P., Dörner, S., Donner, S., Douet, V., Drushka, K., Dütsch, M., Ehrlich, A., Emanuel, K., Emmanouilidis, A., Etienne, J.-C., Etienne-Leblanc, S., Faure, G., Feingold, G., Ferrero, L., Fix, A., Flamant, C., Flatau, P., Foltz, G., Forster, L., Furtuna, I., Gadian, A., Galewsky, J., Gallagher, M., Gallimore, P., Gaston, C., Gentemann, C., Geyskens, N., Giez, A., Gollop, J., Gouirand, I., Gourbeyre, C., de Graaf, D., de Groot, G., Grosz, R., Güttler, J., Gutleben, M., Hall, K., Harris, G., Helfer, K., Henze, D., Herbert, C., Holanda, B., Ibanez-Landeta, A., Intrieri, J., Iyer, S., Julien, F., Kalesse, H., Kazil, J., Kellman, A., Kidane, A., Kirchner, U., Klingebiel, M., Körner, M., Kremper, L., Kretzschmar, J., Krüger, O., Kumala, W., Kurz, A., L'Hégaret, P., Labaste, M., Lachlan-Cope, T., Laing, A., Landschützer, P., Lang, T., Lange, D., Lange, I., Laplace, C., Lavik, G., Laxenaire, R., Le Bihan, C., Leandro, M., Lefevre, N., Lena, M., Lenschow, D., Li, Q., Lloyd, G., Los, S., Losi, N., Lovell, O., Luneau, C., Makuch, P., Malinowski, S., Manta, G., Marinou, E., Marsden, N., Masson, S., Maury, N., Mayer, B., Mayers-Als, M., Mazel, C., McGeary, W., McWilliams, J., Mech, M., Mehlmann, M., Meroni, A., Mieslinger, T., Minikin, A., Minnett, P., Möller, G., Morfa Avalos, Y., Muller, C., Musat, I., Napoli, A., Neuberger, A., Noisel, C., Noone, D., Nordsiek, F., Nowak, J., Oswald, L., Parker, D., Peck, C., Person, R., Philippi, M., Plueddemann, A., Pöhlker, C., Pörtge, V., Pöschl, U., Pologne, L., Posyniak, M., Prange, M., Meléndez, E., Radtke, J., Ramage, K., Reimann, J., Renault, L., Reus, K., Reyes, A., Ribbe, J., Ringel, M., Ritschel, M., Rocha, C., Rochetin, N., Röttenbacher, J., Rollo, C., Royer, H., Sadoulet, P., Saffin, L., Sandiford, S., Sandu, I., Schäfer, M., Schemann, V., Schirmacher, I., Schlenczek, O., Schmidt, J., Schröder, M., Schwarzenboeck, A., Sealy, A., Senff, C., Serikov, I., Shohan, S., Siddle, E., Smirnov, A., Späth, F., Spooner, B., Stolla, M., Szkółka, W., de Szoeke, S., Tarot, S., Tetoni, E., Thompson, E., Thomson, J., Tomassini, L., Totems, J., Ubele, A., Villiger, L., von Arx, J., Wagner, T., Walther, A., Webber, B., Wendisch, M., Whitehall, S., Wiltshire, A., Wing, A., Wirth, M., Wiskandt, J., Wolf, K., Worbes, L., Wright, E., Wulfmeyer, V., Young, S., Zhang, C., Zhang, D., Ziemen, F., Zinner, T. & Zöger, M. (2021). EUREC4A. Earth System Science Data, 13, 4067-4119. doi:10.5194/essd-13-4067-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Vial, J., Vogel, R. & Schulz, H. (2021). On the daily cycle of mesoscale cloud organization in the winter trades. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 147, 2850-2873. doi:10.1002/qj.4103 [publisher-version]
  • Vogel, R., Konow, H., Schulz, H. & Zuidema, P. (2021). A climatology of trade-wind cumulus cold pools and their link to mesoscale cloud organization. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21, 16609-16630. doi:10.5194/acp-21-16609-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Wagner, T., Dörner, S., Beirle, S., Donner, S. & Kinne, S. (2021). Quantitative comparison of measured and simulated O4 absorptions for one day with extremely low aerosol load over the tropical Atlantic. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14, 3871-3893. doi:10.5194/amt-14-3871-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Bellouin, N., Quaas, J., Gryspeerdt, E., Kinne, S., Stier, P., Watson-Parris, D., Boucher, O., Carslaw, K., Christensen, M., Daniau, A.-L., Dufresne, J.-L., Feingold, G., Fiedler, S., Forster, P., Gettelman, A., Haywood, J., Malavelle, F., Lohmann, U., Mauritsen, T., McCoy, D., Myhre, G., Mülmenstädt, J., Neubauer, D., Possner, A., Rugenstein, M., Sato, Y., Schulz, M., Schwartz, S., Sourdeval, O., Storelvmo, T., Toll, V., Winker, D. & Stevens, B. (2020). Bounding aerosol radiative forcing of climate change. Reviews of Geophysics, 58: e2019RG000660. doi:10.1029/2019RG000660 [publisher-version]
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  • Bony, S., Schulz, H., Vial, J. & Stevens, B. (2020). Sugar, gravel, fish, and flowers: Dependence of mesoscale patterns of trade-wind clouds on environmental conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 47: e2019GL085988. doi:10.1029/2019GL085988 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kokhanovsky, A., Tomasi, C., Smirnov, A., Herber, A., Neuber, R., Ehrlich, A., Lupi, A., Petkov, B., Mazzola, M., Ritter, C., Toledano, C., Carlund, T., Vitale, V., Holben, B., Zielinski, T., Bélanger, S., Larouche, P., Kinne, S., Radionov, V., Wendisch, M., Tackett, J. & Winker, D. (2020). Remote sensing of Arctic atmospheric aerosols. In Kokhanovsky, A. & Tomasi, C. (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of the Arctic Atmosphere (pp.505-589). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Myhre, G., Samset, B., Mohr, C., Alterskjær, K., Balkanski, Y., Bellouin, N., Chin, M., Haywood, J., Hodnebrog, O., Kinne, S., Lin, G., Lund, M., Penner, J., Schulz, M., Schutgens, N., Skeie, R., Stier, P., Takemura, T. & Zhang, K. (2020). Cloudy-sky contributions to the direct aerosol effect. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20, 8855-8865. doi:10.5194/acp-20-8855-2020 [publisher-version]
  • Rasp, S., Schulz, H., Bony, S. & Stevens, B. (2020). Combining crowdsourcing and deep learning to understand mesoscale organization of shallow convection. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101, E1980-E1995. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0324.1 [pre-print][publisher-version]
  • Sakradzija, M. & Klingebiel, M. (2020). Comparing ground-based observations and a large-eddy simulation of shallow cumuli by isolating the main controlling factors of the mass flux distribution. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146, 254-266. doi:10.1002/qj.3671 [supplementary-material][publisher-version]
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  • Vogel, R., Nuijens, L. & Stevens, B. (2020). Influence of deepening and mesoscale organization of shallow convection on stratiform cloudiness in the downstream trades. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146, 174-185. doi:10.1002/qj.3664 [publisher-version]
  • Wang, P., Piters, A., van Geffen, J., Tuinder, O., Stammes, P. & Kinne, S. (2020). Shipborne MAX-DOAS measurements for validation of TROPOMI NO2 products. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13, 1413-1426. doi:10.5194/amt-13-1413-2020 [publisher-version]
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Dr. Julia Windmiller

Group Leader
Phone: +49 (0)40 41173-266
julia.windmiller@we dont want

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Observations are data records collected with the help of scientific measuring instruments. There are, for example, countless weather stations around the world that measure temperature on land, in the air and in the sea as well as satellites, ships and aircraft ...

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