Sarah Kang

Department Climate Dynamics
Group Director's Research Group (CDY)
Position Director
phone +49 40 41173-437
Room B 314

Research Interests

  • Large-scale circulations of the atmosphere and ocean
  • Tropical-extratropical two-way interaction
  • Tropical hydrological cycle
  • Polar amplication mechanism


Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Director for Climate Dynamics Department Aug. 2023 - present

Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Republic of Korea, Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering
  •  Professor Sep. 2022 - Aug. 2023

  •  Associate Professor Aug. 2015 - Aug. 2022

  •  Assistant Professor Aug. 2011 - Aug. 2015


Columbia University, New York, USA
Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics
  • Postdoctoral Fellow Nov. 2009 - Aug. 2011, Supervisor: Lorenzo M. Polvani

Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2004-2009

Ph.D., Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Jun. 2009

  • Dissertation topic: The response of tropical precipitation to extratropical thermal forcing

  • Advisor: Isaac M. Held, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory


Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2000-2004

B.S., Atmospheric Science Feb. 2004

  • Graduated with summa cum laude

AGU Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Award (2022)

Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) Kamide Award (2018)

2017 Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing for Geo. Res. Lett. (2018)

Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) Early Career Distinguished Lecturer (2017)

UNIST Creativity & Innovation Fund Award (2013-2015)

UNIST Best Teaching Award (2012)

NCAR Advanced Studies Program Fellowship offered (2009)

Charlotte and Morris Tanenbaum Graduate Student Aid Fund (2004-2005)

Graduated from Seoul National University with Honors (2004)

Seoul National University Tuition Scholarship (2001-2003)

Organizing committee of 2022 CLIVAR Climate Dynamics Panel Workshop

Organizing committee of 2022 US CLIVAR Workshop on the Pattern Effect

Organizing committee of 2021 CFMIP Virtual Meeting

Co-chair of CLIVAR Climate Dynamics Panel (2021)

Associate editor of Frontiers in Climate (2020)

Editor of AGU Advances (2019)

Member of CLIVAR Climate Dynamics Panel (20182020)

Session chair for AGU Fall Meeting (2018)

Editorial board member for npj Climate and Atmospheric Science (2017)

CFMIP Science Steering Committee (2017)

Session chair for Gordon Research Conference on Climate and Radiation (2017)

Board member of Korean Society of Volcanic Hazard Mitigation (2017)

Board member of Korean Meteorological Society (2016)

Session convener for AOGS Annual Meeting (2016)

Session convener for AGU Fall Meeting (2015)

Session chair for Korean Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (20122016)

Member, American Meteorological Society, American Geophysical Union, Korean Meteorological Society


  • Bloch-Johnson, J., Rugenstein, M., Alessi, M., Proistosescu, C., Zhao, M., Zhang, B., Williams, A., Gregory, J., Cole, J., Dong, Y., Duffy, M., Kang, S. & Zhou, C. (2024). The Green’s Function Model Intercomparison Project (GFMIP) Protocol. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 16: e2023MS003700. doi:10.1029/2023MS003700 [publisher-version]
  • Liu, F., Li, X., Luo, Y., Cai, W., Lu, J., Zheng, X., Kang, S., Wang, H. & Zhou, L. (2024). Increased Asian aerosols drive a slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Nature Communications, 15: 18. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-44597-x [publisher-version]
  • Stevens, B., Adami, S., Ali, T., Anzt, H., Aslan, Z., Attinger, S., Bäck, J., Baehr, J., Bauer, P., Bernier, N., Bishop, B., Bockelmann, H., Bony, S., Bouchet, V., Brasseur, G., Bresch, D., Breyer, S., Brunet, G., Buttigieg, P., Cao, J., Castet, C., Cheng, Y., Dey Choudhury, A., Coen, D., Crewell, S., Dabholkar, A., Dai, Q., Doblas-Reyes, F., Durran, D., El Gaidi, A., Ewen, C., Exarchou, E., Eyring, V., Falkinhoff, F., Farrell, D., Forster, P., Frassoni, A., Frauen, C., Fuhrer, O., Gani, S., Gerber, E., Goldfarb, D., Grieger, J., Gruber, N., Hazeleger, W., Herken, R., Hewitt, C., Hoefler, T., Hsu, H.-H., Jacob, D., Jahn, A., Jakob, C., Jung, T., Kadow, C., Kang, I.-S., Kang, S., Kashinath, K., Kleinen-von Königslöw, K., Klocke, D., Kloenne, U., Klöwer, M., Kodama, C., Kollet, S., Kölling, T., Kontkanen, J., Kopp, S., Koran, M., Kulmala, M., Lappalainen, H., Latifi, F., Lawrence, B., Lee, J., Lejeun, Q., Lessig, C., Li, C., Lippert, T., Luterbacher, J., Manninen, P., Marotzke, J., Matsouoka, S., Merchant, C., Messmer, P., Michel, G., Michielsen, K., Miyakawa, T., Müller, J., Munir, R., Narayanasetti, S., Ndiaye, O., Nobre, C., Oberg, A., Oki, R., Özkan-Haller, T., Palmer, T., Posey, S., Prein, A., Primus, O., Pritchard, M., Pullen, J., Putrasahan, D., Quaas, J., Raghavan, K., Ramaswamy, V., Rapp, M., Rauser, F., Reichstein, M., Revi, A., Saluja, S., Satoh, M., Schemann, V., Schemm, S., Schnadt Poberaj, C., Schulthess, T., Senior, C., Shukla, J., Singh, M., Slingo, J., Sobel, A., Solman, S., Spitzer, J., Stier, P., Stocker, T., Strock, S., Su, H., Taalas, P., Taylor, J., Tegtmeier, S., Teutsch, G., Tompkins, A., Ulbrich, U., Vidale, P.-L., Wu, C.-M., Xu, H., Zaki, N., Zanna, L., Zhou, T. & Ziemen, F. (in press). Earth Virtualization Engines (EVE). Earth System Science Data, 16, 2113-2122. doi:10.5194/essd-2023-376 [publisher-version]
  • Wang, H., Zheng, X.-T., Cai, W., Han, Z.-W., Xie, S.-P., Kang, S., Geng, Y.-F., Liu, F., Wang, C.-Y., Wu, Y., Xiang, B. & Zhou, L. (2024). Atmosphere teleconnections from abatement of China aerosol emissions exacerbate Northeast Pacific warm blob events. PNAS, 121: e2313797121. doi:10.1073/pnas.231379712 [publisher-version]
  • Watanabe, M., Kang, S., Collins, M., Hwang, Y.-T., McGregor, S. & Stuecker, M. (2024). Possible shift in controls of the tropical Pacific surface warming pattern. Nature, 630, 315-324. doi:10.1038/s41586-024-07452-7
  • Kang, S., Yu, Y., Deser, C., Zhang, X., Kang, I.-S., Lee, S.-S., Rodgers, K. & Ceppi, P. (2023). Global impacts of recent Southern Ocean cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 120: e2300881120. doi:10.1073/pnas.2300881120 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Kang, S., Shin, Y., Kim, H., Xie, S.-P. & Hu, S. (2023). Disentangling the mechanisms of equatorial Pacific climate change. Science Advances: eadf5059. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adf5059 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Ceppi, P., Yu, Y. & Kang, I.-S. (2023). Recent global climate feedback controlled by Southern Ocean cooling. Nature Geoscience, 16, 775-780. doi:10.1038/s41561-023-01256-6 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, J., Kang, S., Xie, S.-P., Xiang, B., Kim, D., Zheng, X.-T. & Wang, H. (2023). Large-scale climate response to regionally confined extratropical cooling: effect of ocean dynamics. Climate Dynamics, 60, 3291-3306. doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06500-0 [pre-print]
  • Tseng, H.-Y., Hwang, Y.-T., Xie, S.-P., Tseng, Y.-H., Kang, S., Luongo, M. & Eisenman, I. (2023). Fast and slow responses of the tropical Pacific to radiative forcing in northern high latitudes. Journal of Climate, 36, 5337-5349. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0622.1
  • Watanabe, M., Iwakiri, T., Dong, Y. & Kang, S. (2023). Two competing drivers of the recent Walker circulation trend. Geophysical Research Letters, 50: e2023GL105332. doi:10.1029/2023GL105332 [publisher-version]
  • Xiang, B., Xie, S.-P., Kang, S. & Kramer, R. (2023). An emerging Asian aerosol dipole pattern reshapes the Asian summer monsoon and exacerbates northern hemisphere warming. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science: 77. doi:10.1038/s41612-023-00400-8 [publisher-version]
  • Geng, Y.-F., Xie, S.-P., Zheng, X.-T., Long, S.-M., Kang, S., Lin, X. & Song, Z.-H. (2022). CMIP6 Intermodel Spread in Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Tropical Climate Response to Greenhouse Warming: Extratropical Ocean Effects. Journal of Climate, 35, 4869-4882. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0541.1 [publisher-version]
  • Hsiao, W.-T., Hwang, Y.-T., Chen, Y.-J. & Kang, S. (2022). The role of clouds in shaping tropical Pacific response pattern to extratropical thermal forcing. Geophysical Research Letters, 49: e2022GL098023. doi:10.1029/2022GL098023 [publisher-version]
  • Hu, S., Xie, S.-P. & Kang, S. (2022). Global warming pattern formation: The role of ocean heat uptake. Journal of Climate, 35, 1885-1899. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0317.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, D., Kim, H., Kang, S., Stuecker, M. & Merlis, T. (2022). Weak Hadley cell intensity changes due to compensating effects of tropical and extratropical radiative forcing. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 5: 61. doi:10.1038/s41612-022-00287-x [publisher-version]
  • Kim, H., Kang, S., Kay, J. & Xie, S.-P. (2022). Subtropical clouds key to Southern Ocean teleconnections to the tropical Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119: e2200514119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2200514119 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, H., Pendergrass, A. & Kang, S. (2022). The dependence of mean climate state on shortwave absorption by water vapor. Journal of Climate, 35, 2189-2207. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0417.1 [publisher-version]
  • Lee, J., Kang, S., Kim, H. & Xiang, B. (2022). Disentangling the effect of regional SST bias on the double-ITCZ problem. Climate Dynamics, 58, 3441-3453. doi:10.1007/s00382-021-06107-x
  • Park, C., Kang, S., Stuecker, M. & Jin, F.-F. (2022). Distinct surface warming response over the Western and Eastern Equatorial Pacific to radiative forcing. Geophysical Research Letters, 49: e2021GL095829. doi:10.1029/2021GL095829 [publisher-version]
  • Hwang, Y.-T., Tseng, H.-Y., Li, K.-C., Kang, S., Chen, Y.-J. & Chiang, J. (2021). Relative roles of energy and momentum fluxes in the tropical response to extratropical Thermal Forcing. Journal of Climate, 34, 3771-3786. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0151.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Xie, S.-P., Deser, C. & Xiang, B. (2021). Zonal mean and shift modes of historical climate response to evolving aerosol distribution. Science Bulletin, 66, 2405-2411. doi:10.1016/j.scib.2021.07.013
  • Kim, D., Kang, S., Merlis, T. & Shin, Y. (2021). Atmospheric circulation sensitivity to changes in the vertical structure of polar warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 48: e2021GL094726. doi:10.1029/2021GL094726 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, H., Kang, S., Takahashi, K., Donohoe, A. & Pendergrass, A. (2021). Mechanisms of tropical precipitation biases in climate models. Climate Dynamics, 56, 17-27. doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05325-z
  • Shin, Y., Kang, S., Takahashi, K., Stuecker, M., Hwang, Y.-T. & Kim, D. (2021). Evolution of the tropical response to periodic extratropical thermal forcing. Journal of Climate, 34, 6335-6353. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0493.1 [publisher-version]
  • Shin, Y. & Kang, S. (2021). How does the high-latitude thermal forcing in one hemisphere affect the other hemisphere?. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(24): e2021GL095870. doi:10.1029/2021GL095870 [publisher-version]
  • Zeitler, P., Barros, A., Becker, T., Davidson, E., Ehlmann, B., Gruber, N., Hofmann, E., Hudson, M., Illangasekare, T., Kang, S., Malanotte Rizzoli, P., Moerchen, M., Nimmo, F., Parsons, T., Salters, V., Stevens, B., Trumbore, S., Wuebbles, D. & Zhu, T. (2021). Confronting racism to advance our science. AGU Advances, 2: e2020AV000296. doi:10.1029/2020AV000296 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S. (2020). Extratropical influence on the tropical rainfall distribution. Current Climate Change Reports, 6(1), 24-36. doi:10.1007/s40641-020-00154-y
  • Kang, S., Xie, S.-P., Shin, Y., Kim, H., Hwang, Y.-T., Stuecker, M., Xiang, B. & Hawcroft, M. (2020). Walker circulation response to extratropical radiative forcing. Science Advances, 6. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd3021 [publisher-version]
  • Stuecker, M., Timmermann, A., Jin, F.-F., Proistosescu, C., Kang, S., Kim, D., Yun, K.-S., Chung, E.-S., Chu, J.-E., Bitz, C., Armour, K. & Hayashi, M. (2020). Strong remote control of future equatorial warming by off-equatorial forcing. Nature Climate Change, 10, 124-129. doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0667-6
  • Cai, W., Wu, L., Lengaigne, M., Li, T., McGregor, S., Kug, J.-S., Yu, J.-Y., Stuecker, M., Santoso, A., Li, X., Ham, Y.-G., Chikamoto, Y., Ng, B., McPhaden, M., Du, Y., Dommenget, D., Jia, F., Kajtar, J., Keenlyside, N., Lin, X., Luo, J.-J., Martín-Rey, M., Ruprich-Robert, Y., Wang, G., Xie, S.-P., Yang, Y., Kang, S., Choi, J.-Y., Gan, B., Kim, G.-I., Kim, C.-E., Kim, S., Kim, J.-H. & Chang, P. (2019). Pantropical climate interactions. Science, 363(6430). doi:10.1126/science.aav4236
  • Kang, S., Hawcroft, M., Xiang, B., Hwang, Y.-T., Kim, H., Cazes, G., Codron, F., Crueger, T., Deser, C., Hodnebrog, Ø., Kim, J., Kosaka, Y., Losada, T., Mechoso, C., Myhre, G., Seland, Ø., Stevens, B., Watanabe, M. & Yu, S. (2019). Extratropical-Tropical INteraction Model Intercomparison Project (ETIN-MIP): Protocol and initial results. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 2589-2606. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0301.1 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Biasutti, M., Voigt, A., Boos, W., Braconnot, P., Hargreaves, J., Harrison, S., Kang, S., Mapes, B., Scheff, J., Schumacher, C., Sobel, A. & Xie, S.-P. (2018). Global energetics and local physics as drivers of past, present and future monsoons. Nature Geoscience, 11, 392. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0137-1
  • Cho, M.-H., Yang, A.-R., Baek, E.-H., Kang, S., Jeong, S.-J., Kim, J. & Kim, B.-M. (2018). Vegetation-cloud feedbacks to future vegetation changes in the Arctic regions. Climate Dynamics, 50, 3745-3755. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3840-5
  • Kang, S., Shin, Y. & Xie, S.-P. (2018). Extratropical forcing and tropical rainfall distribution: energetics framework and ocean Ekman advection. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1: 20172. doi:10.1038/s41612-017-0004-6 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Park, K., Hwang, Y.-T. & Hsiao, W.-T. (2018). Contrasting tropical climate response pattern to localized thermal forcing over different ocean basins. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(22), 12544-12552. doi:10.1029/2018GL080697 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Shin, Y. & Codron, F. (2018). The partitioning of poleward energy transport response between the atmosphere and Ekman flux to prescribed surface forcing in a simplified GCM. Geoscience Letters, 5: 22. doi:10.1186/s40562-018-0124-9 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, D., Kang, S., Shin, Y. & Feldl, N. (2018). Sensitivity of polar amplification to varying insolation conditions. Journal of Climate, 31, 4933-4947. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0627.1 [publisher-version]
  • Park, K., Kang, S., Kim, D., Stuecker, M. & Jin, F.-F. (2018). Contrasting local and remote impacts of surface heating on polar warming and amplification. Journal of Climate, 31, 3155-3166. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0600.1 [publisher-version]
  • Stuecker, M., Bitz, C., Armour, K., Proistosescu, C., Kang, S., Xie, S.-P., Kim, D., McGregor, S., Zhang, W., Zhao, S., Cai, W., Dong, Y. & Jin, F.-F. (2018). Polar amplification dominated by local forcing and feedbacks. Nature Climate Change, 8(12), 1076-+. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0339-y
  • Swart, N., Busecke, J., Langendijk, G., Reed, K., Kang, S., Behrens, E., Frassoni, A., Baker, N., Durgadoo, J., Dike, V. & Nath, D. (2018). Reflections on the CLIVAR Early Career Scientists Symposium 2016. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1: 6. doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0015-y [publisher-version]
  • White, R., McFarlane, A., Frierson, D., Kang , S., Shin, Y. & Friedman, M. (2018). Tropical precipitation and cross-equatorial heat transport in response to localized heating: Basin and hemisphere dependence. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 11,949-11,958. doi:10.1029/2018GL078781
  • Xiang, B., Zhao, M., Ming, Y., Yu, W. & Kang, S. (2018). Contrasting impacts of radiative forcing in the Southern Ocean versus Southern Tropics on ITCZ position and energy transport in one GFDL climate model. Journal of Climate, 31, 5609-5628. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0566.1 [publisher-version]
  • Hwang, Y.-T., Xie, S.-P., Deser, C. & Kang, S. (2017). Connecting tropical climate change with Southern Ocean heat uptake. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 9449-9457. doi:10.1002/2017GL074972 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Park, K., Jin, F.-F. & Stuecker, M. (2017). Common warming pattern emerges irrespective of forcing location. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2413-2424. doi:10.1002/2017MS001083 [publisher-version]
  • Seo, J., Kang, S. & Merlis, T. (2017). A model intercomparison of the tropical precipitation response to a CO2 doubling in aquaplanet simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 993-1000. doi:10.1002/2016GL072347 [publisher-version]
  • Shin, Y., Kang, S. & Watanabe, M. (2017). Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationarywaves and to high-latitudes surface warming. Climate Dynamics, 49, 3753-3763. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3543-y
  • Maroon, E., Frierson, D., Kang, S. & Scheff, J. (2016). The precipitation response to an idealized subtropical continent. Journal of Climate, 29(12), 4543-4564. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0616.1 [publisher-version]
  • Voigt, A., Biasutti, M., Scheff, J., Bader, J., Bordoni, S., Codron, F., Dixon, R., Jonas, J., Kang, S., Klingaman, N., Leung, R., Lu, J., Mapes, B., Maroon, E., McDermid, S., Park, J.-Y., Roehrig, R., Rose, B., Russell, G., Seo, J., Toniazzo, T., Wei, H.-H., Yoshimori, M. & Zeppetello, L. (2016). The tropical rain belts with an annual cycle and a continent model intercomparison project: TRACMIP. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1868-1891. doi:10.1002/2016MS000748 [publisher-version]
  • Chae, Y., Kang, S., Jeong, S.-J., Kim, B. & Frierson, D. (2015). Arctic greening can cause earlier seasonality of Arctic amplification. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 536-541. doi:10.1002/2014GL061841 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Seager, R., Frierson, D. & Liu, X. (2015). Croll revisited: Why is the northern hemisphere warmer than the southern hemisphere?. Climate Dynamics, 44, 1457-1472. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2147-z
  • Kang, S., Kim, B.-M., Frierson, D., Jeong, S.-J., Seo, J. & Chae, Y. (2015). Seasonal dependence of the effect of arctic greening on tropical precipitation. Journal of Climate, 28, 6086-6095. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0079.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kim, H., Kang, S., Hwang, Y.-T. & Yang, Y.-M. (2015). Sensitivity of the climate response to the altitude of black carbon in the northern subtropics in an aquaplanet GCM. Journal of Climate, 28(16), 6351-6359. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0037.1 [publisher-version]
  • Shaw, T., Voigt, A., Kang, S. & Seo, J. (2015). Response of the intertropical convergence zone to zonally asymmetric subtropical surface forcings. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 9961-9969. doi:10.1002/2015GL066027 [publisher-version]
  • Webb, M., Lock, A., Bretherton, C., Bony, S., Cole, J., Idelkadi, A., Kang, S., Koshiro, T., Kawai, H., Ogura, T., Roehrig, R., Shin, Y., Mauritsen, T., Sherwood, S., Vial, J., Watanabe, M., Woelfle, M. & Zhao, M. (2015). The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 373(2054): 20140414. doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0414
  • Kang, S., Held, I. & Xie, S.-P. (2014). Contrasting the tropical responses to zonally asymmetric extratropical and tropical thermal forcing. Climate Dynamics, 42, 2033-2043. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1863-0
  • Kang, S. & Xie, S.-P. (2014). Dependence of climate response on meridional structure of external thermal forcing. Journal of Climate, 27, 5593-5600. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00622.1 [publisher-version]
  • Seo, J., Kang, S. & Frierson, D. (2014). Sensitivity of intertropical convergence zone movement to the latitudinal position of thermal forcing. Journal of Climate, 27(8), 3035-3042. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00691.1 [publisher-version]
  • Frierson, D., Hwang, Y.-T., Fuckar, N., Seager, R., Kang, S., Donohoe, A., Maroon, E., Liu, X. & Battisti, D. (2013). Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere. Nature Geoscience, 6, 940-944. doi:10.1038/NGEO1987
  • Hwang, Y.-T., Frierson, D. & Kang, S. (2013). Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(11), 2845-2850. doi:10.1002/grl.50502 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Deser, C. & Polvani, L. (2013). Uncertainty in climate change projections of the hadley circulation: the role of internal variability. Journal of Climate, 26(19), 7541-7554. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00788.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S. & Held, I. (2012). Tropical precipitation, SSTs and the surface energy budget: a zonally symmetric perspective. Climate Dynamics, 38, 1917-1924. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1048-7
  • Kang, S. & Lu, J. (2012). Expansion of the Hadley Cell under global warming: winter versus summer. Journal of Climate, 25, 8387-8393. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00323.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Polvani, L., Fyfe, J. & Sigmond, M. (2011). Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation. Science, 332, 951-954. doi:10.1126/science.1202131
  • Kang, S. & Polvani, L. (2011). The interannual relationship between the latitude of the eddy-driven jet and the edge of the hadley cell. Journal of Climate, 24, 563-568. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI4077.1 [publisher-version]
  • Zhang, R., Kang, S. & Held, I. (2010). Sensitivity of climate change induced by the weakening of the atlantic meridional overturning circulation to cloud feedback. Journal of Climate, 23, 378-389. doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3118.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Frierson, D. & Held, I. (2009). The tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing in an idealized GCM: the importance of radiative feedbacks and convective parameterization. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 66, 2812-2827. doi:10.1175/2009JAS2924.1 [publisher-version]
  • Kang, S., Held, I., Frierson, D. & Zhao, M. (2008). The response of the ITCZ to extratropical thermal forcing: Idealized slab-ocean experiments with a GCM. Journal of Climate, 21, 3521-3532. doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2146.1 [publisher-version]