Examined publications


  •  Villamayor, J., M. Khodri1, S.-W. Fang, J. H. Jungclaus, C. Timmreck, D. Zanchettin, Sahel droughts induced by large volcanic eruptions over the last millennium in PMIP4/past1000, Geophys. Res. Lett, accepted, 2023.


  • Quaglia, I., C. Timmreck, U. Niemeier, D. Visioni, G. Pitari, C. Brodowsky, C. Brühl, S.S. Dhomse, H. Franke, A. Laakso, G. W. Mann, E. Rozanov, and T. Sukhodolov, Interactive stratospheric aerosol models' response to different amounts and altitudes of SO2 injection during the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 921–948, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-921-2023, 2023.
  • van Dijk, E., I. Mørkestøl Gundersen, A.de Bode, H. Høeg, K. Loftsgarden, F. Iversen, C. Timmreck, J. Jungclaus and K. Krüger (202. Climatic and societal impacts in Scandinavia following the 536 and 540 CE lcanic double event, Clim. Past, 19, 357–398, doi.org/10.5194/cp-19-357-2023, 2023.
  • Zanchettin, D., S.-W. Fang, M. Khodri, N.-E. Omrani, S. Rubinetti, A. Rubino, C. Timmreck and J. H. Jungclaus (2023), Thermohaline patterns of intrinsic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, Climate. Dynamics, online available Climate Dynamics https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-023-06679-w, 2023.


  • Zanchettin, D.,  C. Timmreck, M. Khodri,  A. Schmidt, M. Toohey, M. Abe, S. Bekki, J. Cole, S.-W. Fang, W. Feng, G. Hegerl, B. Johnson, N. Lebas, A.N. LeGrande, G. W.,Mann, L. Marshall,  L. Rieger, A. Robock,  S. Rubinetti, K. Tsigaridis  and H.  Weierbach, Effects of forcing differences and initial conditions on inter-model agreement in the VolMIP volc-pinatubo-full experiment, Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2265–2292, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-15-2265-2022., 2022.
  • D'Agostino, R. and C. Timmreck, Sensitivity of regional monsoons to idealised equatorial volcanic eruption of different sulfur emission strengths. Environmental Research Letters, 17: 054001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac62af, 2022.

  • Marshall, L, E C. Maters, A. Schmidt, C. Timmreck, A. Robock, and M. Toohey, Volcanic effects on climate: recent advances and future avenues. Bull Volcanol 84, 54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-022-01559-3, 2022.

  • van Dijk, E., J. Jungclaus, S. Lorenz, C. Timmreck, and K. Krüger, Was there a volcanic-induced long-lasting cooling over the Northern Hemisphere in the mid-6th–7th century?, Clim. Past, 18, 1601–1623, doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1601-2022, 2022

  • Günther, M., H. Schmidt, C. Timmreck and M. Toohey,  Climate feedback to stratospheric aerosol forcing explained by pattern effect, Journal of Climate, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0306.1.,2022.

  • Fang, S.-W., C. Timmreck, J. Jungclaus, K. Krüger and H. Schmidt, On the additivity of climate responses to the volcanic and solar forcing in the early 19th century, Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1535–1555, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1535-2022, 2022.



  • Clyne, M., J.-F. Lamarque, M. J. Mills, M. Khodri, W. Ball, S. Bekki, S. S. Dhomse, N. Lebas, G. Mann, L. Marshall, U. Niemeier, V. Poulain, A. Robock, E. Rozanov, A. Schmidt, A. Stenke, T. Sukhodolov, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, F. Tummon, D. Zanchettin, Y. Zhu, and O. B. Toon,  Model physics and chemistry causing intermodel disagreement within the VolMIP-Tambora Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol ensemble, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3317–3343, doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-3317-2021, 2021.

  • Niemeier, U.,  F. Riede, and C. Timmreck, Simulation of ash clouds after a Laacher See-type eruption, Clim. Past, 17, 633–652, doi.org/10.5194/cp-17-633-2021, 2021

  • Brenna, H., S. Kutterolf, M. J. Mills, U. Niemeier, C. Timmreck, K. Krüger Decadal disruption of the QBO by tropical volcanic super eruptions,  Geophys. Res. Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089687, 2021.

  • Jones, C.D.,  J. E. Hickman, S.T. Rumbold, J. Walton, R. D.  Lamboll, R. B. Skeie, S. Fiedler, P. M. Forster, J. Rogelj, M. Abe, M. Botzet, K. Calvin, C. Cassou, J. N.S. Cole, P. Davini, M. Deushi, M. Dix, J. C. Fyfe, N. P. Gillett, T. Ilyina, M. Kawamiya, M. Kelley, S. Kharin, T. Koshiro, H. Li, C. Mackallah, W. A. Müller, P. Nabat, T. van Noije, P. Nolan, R. Ohgaito, D. Olivié, Naga Oshima, J. Parodi, T. J. Reerink, L. Ren, A. Romanou, R. Séférian, Y. Tang,  C. Timmreck, J. Tjiputra, E. Tourigny, K. Tsigaridis, H. Wang, M. Wu, K. Wyser, S. Yang, Y.Yang and T. Ziehn. The Climate Response to Emissions Reductions due to COVID-19: Initial Results from CovidMIP,  Geophys. Res. Lett., e2020GL091883 doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091883

  • Kroll, C. A., S. Dacie,  A. Azoulay,  H. Schmidt and  C. Timmreck: The impact of volcanic eruptions of different magnitude on stratospheric water vapor in the tropics, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6565–6591, doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-6565-2021, 2021.

  • Azoulay, A., H. Schmidt and C. Timmreck, The Arctic polar vortex response to volcanic forcing of different strength, J. Geophys. Res., 126, e2020JD034450. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD034450

  • Timmreck, C., M. Toohey, D. Zanchettin S. Brönnimann, E. Lundstadt and R. Wilson The unidentified eruption of 1809: a climatic cold case, Clim. Past, 17, 1455–1482, doi.org/10.5194/cp-17-1455-2021, 2021.

  • Malinina, E. A. Rozanov, U. Niemeier, S. Peglow, C. Arosio, F. Wrana, C. Timmreck, C. von Savigny, C. and J. P.  Burrows, Changes in stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient after the 2018 Ambae eruption as seen by OMPS-LP and ECHAM5-HAM Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14871–14891, doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-14871-2021, 2021.


  •  Riede, F., S. T. Hussain, C. Timmreck and J-C. Svenning, CLIOdynamic ARCHaeology: computational approaches to Final Palaeolithic/Early Mesolithic archaeology and climate change (2020), Antiquity, Vol. 94 (375): e13, 1–4 doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2020.85
  • Hermanson, L.,  R. Bilbao, N. Dunstone, M. Menegoz, P. Ortega, H. Pohlmann, J. I. Robson, D. M. Smith, G. Strand, C. Timmreck, S Yeager, and G. Danabasoglu, (2020), Multi-year climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, JGR Atmospheres 125, no. 9, e2019JD031739.
  •  Von Savigny C., C. Timmreck, S.A. Bühler, J.P. Burrows, M. Giorgetta, G. Hegerl, A. Horvath, G. Hoshyaripour, C. Hoose, J. Quaas, E. Malinina, A. Rozanov, H. Schmidt, L. Thomason M. Toohey and B. Vogel (2020), The Research Unit VolImpact: Revisiting the volcanic impact on atmosphere and climate — preparations for the next big volcanic eruption,  Meteorologische Zeitschrift, pp.3-18.


  • Toohey, M., K. Krüger, H. Schmidt,  C. Timmreck,  M. Sigl,  M. Stoffel,, and  R. Wilson (2019) Disproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptions. Nature Geoscience, 12, 100-107. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0286-2
  • Zanchettin, D., C. Timmreck,  M. Toohey, J. Jungclaus, M.  Bittner, S. Lorenz, and  A. Rubino (2019) . Clarifying the relative role of forcing uncertainties and initial-condition unknowns in spreading the climate response to volcanic eruptions. Geophysical Research Letters, . doi:10.1029/2018GL081018.
  • Niemeier, U., C. Timmreck, and K. Krüger (2019), Revisiting the Agung 1963 volcanic forcing: Impact of one or two eruptions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19, 10379-10390, doi:10.5194/acp-19-10379-2019.
  • Schurer, A.P, G. C. Hegerl, J. Luterbacher, S. Broennimann, T. Cowan, S. Tett, D. Zanchettin, and C. Timmreck (2019), Disentangling the causes of the year without a Summer, Environ. Res. Lett.  Vol. 14, 9,https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab3a10.


  • Timmreck, C., G. W. Mann, V. Aquila,  R. Hommel, L. A. Lee, A. Schmidt, C. Brühl, S. Carn, M. Chin, S. S. Dhomse, T. Diehl, J. M., English, M. J. Mills, R. Neely, J. Sheng, M. Toohey and D. Weisenstein: The Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol Model Intercomparison Project (ISA-MIP): Motivation and experimental design, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2581-2608, doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2581-2018.
  • lling, S., C. Kadow, H.  Pohlmann, and C. Timmreck (2018) Assessing the Impact of a Future Volcanic Eruption on Decadal Predictions, Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 701-715, doi.org/10.5194/esd-9-701-2018.
  • Marshall, L., A. Schmidt, M. Toohey, K. S. Carslaw, G. W. Mann, M. Sigl,  M. Khodri,  C. Timmreck, D. Zanchettin, W. T. Ball, S. Bekki, J. S. A. Brooke,  S. Dhomse,  C. Johnson, J.-F. Lamarque, A. N. LeGrande, A. N., M. J. Mills, U. Niemeier,  J. O.Pope,  V. Poulain,  A. Robock, E. Rozanov, A. Stenke, T. Sukhodolov, S. Tilmes, K. Tsigaridis and F. Tummon (2018) Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2307-2328, doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2307-2018.


  • Jungclaus, J. H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L.P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J.F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G. Hegerl, G.C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J.O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein-Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A.N. LeGrande, S.J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, O.H. Ottera, B.I. Otto-Bliesner, S.J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G.A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A.I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, S.K. Solanki, M. Toohey, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I.G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-J. Wu, K.L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita (2017) The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005-4033, doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017.
  • Zanchettin, D. F. S.R. Pausata, M. Khodri, C. Timmreck, H. Graf, J. H. Jungclaus, A. Robock, A. Rubino, V. Thompson (2017) Toward predicting volcanically-forced decadal climate variability, PAGES Magazine, vol. 25, 25-31, doi.org/10.22498/pages.25.1.25.


  • Laakso, A., H. Kokkola., AI Partanen., U. Niemeier,, C. Timmreck, KEJ Lehtinen, H. Hakkarainen, and H Korhonen  (2016), Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 305-323, doi:10.5194/acpd-16-305-2016.
  • Timmreck  C., H. Pohlmann, S. Illing and C. Kadow (2016) The impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosol on decadal scale predictability. Geophys. Res. Lett, 43, doi: 10.1002/2015GL067431
  • Kremser, S. L. W. Thomason, M. von Hobe, M. Hermann, C. Timmreck, T. Deshler, M. Toohey, A. Stenke, Fred Prata, J. Schwarz, R. Weigel, S. Fueglistaler, J.-P. Vernier, B. Luo, H. Schlager, J. Barnes, J.-C.  Antuna-Marrero, D. Fairlie, M. Palm, E. Mahieu, J. Notholt, M. Rex, R. Neely, C. Bingen, A. Bourassa, J. Plane, D. Klocke, S. Carn, C. Lieven, A. James, S. Borrmann, L. Rieger, T. Trickl, C. Wilson, and B. Meland (2016), Stratospheric aerosol - Observations, processes, and impact on climate Rev. Geophys., 54, doi:10.1002/2015RG000511.
  • Bittner, M., C. Timmreck, H.Schmidt, M. Toohey M, K, Krüger (2016), The impact of wave-mean flow interaction on the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex after tropical volcanic eruptions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024603.
  • Raible, C C. S. Brönnimann, R Auchmann, P. Brohan, Thomas L. Frölicher, H.-F. Graf, P. Jones, J. Luterbacher, S. Muthers, R. Neukom, A. Robock, S. Self, A. Sudrajat, C. Timmreck, Martin Wegmann, (2016) Tambora 1815 as a test case for high impact volcanic eruptions: Earth system effects  WIRE Climate Changes, doi: 10.1002/wcc.407.
  • Marotzke, J., W: A. Müller, F. Vamborg, P. Becker, U. Cubasch, H. Feldmann, F. Kaspar, C. Kottmeier, C. Marini, I. Polkova, K. Prömmel, H. Rust, D. Stammer, U. Ulbrich, C. Kadow, A. Köhl, J. Kröger, T. Kruschke, J. G. Pinto, H. Pohlmann, M. Reyers, M. Schröder, F. Sienz, C. Timmreck and M. Ziese (2016), MiKlip – a National Research Project on Decadal Climate Prediction, BAMS http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00
  • Zanchettin, D., M. Khodri, C. Timmreck M. Toohey, A. Schmidt, E. P. Gerber, G. Hegerl, A. Robock, F. S. Pausata, W. T. Ball, S. E. Bauer S. Bekki, S. S. Dhomse, A. N. LeGrande, G. W. Mann, L. Marshall, M. Mills, M. Marchand, U. Niemeier, V. Poulain, A. Rubino, A. Stenke, K. Tsigaridis and F. Tummon (2016) The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2701-2719, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2701-2016.
  • Bittner, M., H. Schmidt, C. Timmreck, and F. Sienz (2016) Using a large ensemble of simulations to assess the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric dynamical response to tropical volcanic eruptions and its uncertainty, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070587.
  • Toohey M. B. Stevens, H. Schmidt and C. Timmreck.(2016) Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): An idealized forcing generator for climate simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4049-4070, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-4049-2016.


  • Sudarchikova, N., Mikolajewicz, U., Timmreck, C., O'Donnell, D., Schurgers, G., Sein, D., and Zhang, K (2015) Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica, Clim. Past, 11, 765-779, doi:10.5194/cp-11-765-2015,.
  • Hommel, R, C Timmreck, M Giorgetta,  and HF Graf (2015) Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layer layer Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5557-5584, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5557-2015.
  • Niemeier, U. and Timmreck, C.(2015) What is the limit of stratospheric sulfur climate engineering?,  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9129-9141, doi:10.5194/acp-15-9129-2015.
  • Mann, G, S. Dhomse, A. Schmidt, R. Neely, C. Timmreck T. Deshler, L. Thomason (2015) Realistic global particle size evolution key to improved volcanic forcings , Past Global Changes Magazine, 23, 2, 52-53.
  • Zanchettin D, C. Timmreck, M. Khodri, A. Robock, A. Rubino, A. Schmidt, M. Toohey (2015)  A coordinated modeling assessment of the climate response to volcanic forcing, Past Global Changes Magazine, 23, 2, 54-55


  • Toohey M,  K. Krüger, M. Bittner, C. Timmreck, H. Schmid (2014) The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13063-13079, doi:10.5194/acp-14-13063-2014
  • Pascolini-Campbell, M., D. Zanchettin, O. Bothe, C. Timmreck, D. Matei, J. H. Jungclaus, and H.-F. Graf (2014)  Toward a record of Central Pacific El Niño events since 1880 Theoretical and Applied  Clim DOI:10.1007/s00704-014-1114-2
  • Zanchettin, D., Bothe, O., Timmreck, C., Bader, J., Beitsch, A., Graf, H.-F., Notz, D., and Jungclaus, J. H. (2014): Opens external link in current windowInter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill), Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 223-242, doi:10.5194/esd-5-223-2014.
  • Graf, H-F, D. Zanchettin, C Timmreck and M. Bittner, (2014) Observational constraints on the tropospheric and near-surface winter signature of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex. Climate Dynamics DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2101-0







Former publications

  • Timmreck, C. and H.-F.Graf (2006), The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 35-49.
  • Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, A. Longo, A. Neri, T.E. Ongaro, P. Papale, C. Timmreck , and G.G.J. Ernst (2005), Numerical Simulation of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from the Conduit Flow to Global Atmospheric Scales  Annals of Geophysics, 48,817-842
  • Timmreck, C. and M. Schulz (2004), Significant dust simulation differences in nudged and climatological operation mode of the AGCM ECHAM   J. Geophys. Res. 109, D13202,doi:101029/2003JD004381
  • Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, C. Timmreck and A. Robock (2003), Emissions from volcanoes, Chapter 7 of Emissions of Chemical Compounds and Aerosols in the Atmosphere, eds. Claire Granier, Claire Reeves, and Paulo Artaxo, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  • Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf and B. Steil (2003), Aerosol chemistry interactions after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, eds. A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, AGU Monograph,Vol 139, p213-225
  • Korhonen, H., I. Napari, C. Timmreck, H. Vehkamäki,. L. Pirjola,. K.E.J. Lehtinen, A. Lauri and M. Kulmala (2003), Impact of sulphate coating mineral dust on new particle formation: A model study of heterogeneous nucleation, J. Geophys. Res. 108, (D20), 8791 doi:10.1029/2002JD003167
  • Kinne, S., U. Lohmann, J. Feichter, C. Timmreck, M. Schulz, S. Ghan, R. Easter, M. Chin, P. Ginoux, T. Takemura, I. Tegen, D. Koch, M. Herzog, J. Penner, G. Pitari, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, O. Torres, M. Mischenko, I. Geogdzhayev, A. Chu, and Y. Kaufman (2003), Monthly averages of aerosol properties:  A global comparison among models, satellite data and AERONET ground data, J. Geophys. Res., 108,(D20), 4634 doi:10.1029/2001JD001253.
  • Lohmann, U., B. Kärcher and C. Timmreck (2003), Impact of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption on cirrus  clouds formed by homogeneous freezing in the ECHAM GCM. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D18),4568,doi:10.1029/20002JD003185
  • Vehkamäki, H., M. Kulmala, I. Napari,  K. E. J. Lehtinen, C. Timmreck, M. Noppel and  A. Laaksonen (2002), An improved parameterization for sulfuric acid/water nucleation rates for tropospheric and stratospheric conditions J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4622, doi:10.1029/2002JD002184, 2002.
  • Timmreck, C. (2001), Three-dimensional simulation of stratospheric background aerosol: First results of a multiannual GCM simulation. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28,313- 28,332,
  • Graf, H.-F. and C. Timmreck (2001), Aerosol radiative forcing of the Laacher See volcano eruption, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,747-14,756.
  • Timmreck, C. and H.-F. Graf (2000), A microphysical model to simulate the development of stratospheric aerosol in a GCM. Meteorol. Z., 9,263-282. 
  • Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf and I. Kirchner (1999), A one and a half year interactive simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol, J. Geophys. Res.,104, 9337-9360.
  • Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, and J. Feichter (1999), Simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol with the Hamburg climate model ECHAM4, Theor. and Appl. Clim., 62, 85-108 (also MPI Report  No. 245)