Anthropogenic land cover changes (ALCC) affect climate through both biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects. Biogeophysical effects of ALCC during the period 1870-1992 on regional and global scales have been recently explored by Pitman et al. (2009) using seven climate models. Biogeochemical effects of historical ALCC in terms of landuse emissions have been intensively addressed as well (see, e.g., Pongratz et al., 2009; Shevliakova et al., 2009). Effects of future land cover changes on climate are still largely unexplored.

This document describes an experimental protocol for intercomparison of landuse effects on climate for models participating in the CMIP5 simulations. The CMIP5 experiments already include simulations driven by fossil fuel emissions and landuse change scenarios, however, additional simulations without landuse changes are required for separation of effects of landuse on climate. These additional simulations will be analyzed within the LUCID project.

A reminder from the summary of the CMIP5 Experiment Design:

  • the CORE CMIP5 simulation 3.2  is a historical (yr 1850-2005) run with
    • biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of past landuse changes;
    • atmospheric CO2 concentration either prescribed from observations; 
  • the CORE CMIP5 simulation 4.2 is a 21st century (2006-2100) run with
    • biogeophysical effect of landuse as in the CMIP5 protocol;
    • atmospheric CO2 concentration prescribed from the RCP8.5 scenario;
  • the TIER 1 CMIP5 simulation 4.3 a 21st century (2006-2100) run with
    • biogeophysical effect of landuse as in the CMIP5 protocol;
    • atmospheric CO2 concentration prescribed from the RCP2.6 scenario;
  • the CORE CMIP5 simulation 5.3 is a 21st century (2006-2100) run with
    • biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of landuse as in the CMIP5 protocol;
    • atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated interactively using RCP8.5 emissions.

Landuse scenarios for the CMIP5 simulations are available at, see Hurrt et al. (2009). 


Detailed experimental protocol could be found here.

                                     Table 1. Details of experimental protocol of LUCID-CMIP5 simulations

LUCID-CMIP5 simulationsCMIP5 reference*/
initial condition runs
RCP scenario (W/m2)Atmospheric
CO2 concentration
Landuse, wood harvestDuration,  Years AD
                                       Option L1 (biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects)
5.3 / 5.28.5Prescribed (output of the CMIP5 5.3 run)Fixed to yr 20052006-2100
5.3 / 5.28.5Interactive (emission-driven)Fixed to yr 20052006-2100
(L1C26) / 5.22.6Prescribed (output of the L1C26 run)Fixed to yr 20052006-2100


Emission-driven 4.2 / 5.22.6Interactive (emission-driven)Fixed to yr 20052006-2100
Emission-driven 4.2 / 5.22.6Interactive (emission-driven)RCP2.62006-2100
                                       Option L2 (biogeophysical effects and landuse emissions)
4.2 / 3.28.5Prescribed (RCP8.5)Fixed to yr 20052006-2100
4.3 / 3.22.6Prescribed (RCP2.6)Fixed to yr 20052006-2010

* The CMIP5 simulation that determines all details of the experimental setup except of landuse
** Core experiments are compulsory; tier ones are voluntarily
***This emission-driven RCP2.6 simulation is not included into the list of standard runs of CMIP5. However, many CMIP5 groups are going to perform this simulation anyway because of high political relevance


Requested output

The output of the LUCID-CMIP5 simulations should be prepared in accordance with the CMIP5 protocol, see

Where to submit model result

An output of the LUCID-CMIP5 simulation should be submitted and stored in accordance with the CMIP5 data submission rules, see
For LUCID CMOR tables, see http://www2­‐



To register for the LUCID-CMIP5 intercomparison, send an e-mail with
the model name and reference, 

  1. Experimental option (L1 or L2),
  2. Core and/or optional simulations,
  3. Ensemble or single run mode;
  4. the name and e-mail address of the contact person to, cc to dont want, a.pitman@we dont want

Data Submission deadline

Extended: 18 November 2011 


  • Boysen, L., et al (2014). Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle. Earth System Dynamics,5, 309-319, doi:10.5194/esd-5-309-2014
  • Brovkin, V., et al. (2013). Effect of anthropogenic land-use and land cover changes on climate and land carbon storage in CMIP5 projections for the 21st century. Journal of Climate,26, 6859-6881, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00623.1
  • Hurrt , G. et al. (2009) Harmonization of global land-use scenarios for the period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5.  iLEAPS Newsletter No 8, issue 7, S. 6-8, June 2009.
  • Pitman, A.,  et al. (2009) Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: First results from the LUCID intercomparison study. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36.  L14814, doi:10.1029/2009GL039076
  • Pongratz, J., et al. (2009) Effects of anthropogenic land cover change on the carbon cycle of the last millennium   Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4001, doi:10.1029/2009GB003488
  • Shevliakova, E., et al. (2009) Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: Importance of the secondary vegetation sink, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB2022, doi:10.1029/2007GB003176

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