Observations, Analysis and Synthesis

The overarching goal of the group “Observations, Analysis and Synthesis” is to actively participate in the collection of measurement data in remote ocean areas to improve our understanding of the Earth System. Our aim is to find solutions to better monitor and understand data sparse and undersampled ocean regions. Using novel analysis methods (e.g., neural networks) we investigate variations in the marine carbon cycle and provide new observational constraints to the scientific community.


Since 2018, the group “Observations, Analysis and Synthesis” collects a substantial number of underway measurements of the sea-surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) from sailboats during round-the-world racing events. It is used to calculate the CO2 fluxes between air and sea. The collaboration with skippers and their teams led to the collection of valuable physical and biogeochemical data within the oceans’ most remote major basin, i.e., the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean comprises the largest marine carbon sink, however, data availability is limited and processes driving the natural variations in the ocean carbon sink area are largely unknown. Sailboats provide the opportunity to fill the void in the sea-surface pCO2 observational network and are therefore further explored as novel observing platforms.

The group also collects field data on-board of research vessels and performs laboratory experiments. Over the last years we have been involved in various international and interdisciplinary projects, field campaigns and instrumentational testing. By collaborating with scientists from around the globe, we have an extensive exchange of knowledge and expertise which thrives our work and makes our research of the ocean all the more exciting.


The observational network of high-resolution measurements of the sea-surface partial pressure of CO2 aboard sailboats and research vessels offers the opportunity to study (sub-)mesoscale variations in the air–sea CO2 uptake.

Using the observational network, we:

  • identify boundaries, where thermal drivers dominate over biological, chemical and physical drivers of the sea-surface pCO2 and how these boundaries shift in time.

  • investigate mesoscale variability such as the Agulhas leakage or the North Brazilian rings.

  • quantify the CO2 drawdown through local algal blooms, causing short-term fluctuations in the sea surface pCO2.

  • identify large changes in the sea surface pCO2 caused by frontal zones, i.e. transition zones between different water masses.

The group aims to provide essential process understanding to improve the next generation of high-resolution ocean models.


The OAS group combines, extrapolates and interprets various observations of the Earth system from satellite data through shipboard data and data from autonomous sampling devices. Through data synthesis, our aim is to improve our understanding of the processes driving the exchange of carbon and heat in the global ocean and their impact on climate-relevant timescales. The group uses a wide variety of tools from classical statistical analysis through data mining and artificial neural networks to synergize all available in-situ information and provide new constraints to evaluate Earth system models and improve future projections and short-term predictions.

While one focus is on the global ocean, the group further sets focus on ocean regions, such as the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and the coastal ocean, where data are sparse and novel techniques are required to meaningfully interpret the available observations

Landschützer, P., Ilyina, T., and Lovenduski, N. S.: Detecting regional modes of variability in observation‐based surface ocean pCO2. Geophysical Research Letters, 46. doi:10.1029/2018GL081756, 2019

Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Bakker, D. C. E., Stemmler, I. and Six. K. D.: Strengthening seasonal marine CO2 variations due to increasing atmospheric CO2. Nature Climate Change,  8, 146–150, doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0057-x, 2018

Landschützer, P., Gruber, N. and Bakker, D. C. E.: Decadal variations and trends of the global ocean carbon sink, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, 1396- 1417, doi:10.1002/2015GB005359, 2016

Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Haumann, F. A. Rödenbeck, C. Bakker, D. C. E., van Heuven, S. Hoppema, M., Metzl, N., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B. and Wanninkhof, R: The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink, Science, 349, 1221-1224. doi:10.1126/science.aab2620, 2015

Keppler, L., Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Lauvset, S. and Stemmler, I.: Seasonal Carbon Dynamics in the Near-Global Ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34, e2020GB006571. doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006571, 2020

Keppler, L. and Landschützer, P.: Regional Wind Variability Modulates the Southern Ocean Carbon Sink, Scientific Reports, 9, 7384, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43826-y, 2019

Olivier, L., Boutin, J., Reverdin, G., Lefèvre, N., Landschützer, P., Speich, S., Karstensen, J., Ritschel, M., and Wanninkhof, R.: Impact of North Brazil Current rings on air-sea CO2 flux variability in winter 2020, Biogeosciences Discuss. [preprint], doi.org/10.5194/bg-2021-269, in review, 2021.

Group members and publications

  • Devries, T., Yamamoto, K., Wanninkhof, R., Gruber, N., Hauck, J., Mueller, J., Bopp, L., Carroll, D., Carter, B., Chau, T.-T., Doney, S., Gehlen, M., Gloege, L., Gregor, L., Henson, S., Kim, J., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Landschützer, P., Le Quere, C., Munro, D., Nissen, C., Patara, L., Perez, F., Resplandy, L., Rodgers, K., Schwinger, J., Seferian, R., Sicardi, V., Terhaar, J., Trinanes, J., Tsujino, H., Watson, A., Yasunaka, S. & Zeng, J. (2023). Magnitude, trends, and variability of the global ocean Carbon sink from 1985 to 2018. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37: e2023GB007780. doi:10.1029/2023GB007780 [publisher-version]
  • Gruber, N., Bakker, D., DeVries, T., Gregor, L., Hauck, J., Landschützer, P., McKinley, G. & Müller, J. (2023). Trends and variability in the ocean carbon sink. Nature Reviews Earth and Environment, 4, 119-134. doi:10.1038/s43017-022-00381-x
  • Keppler, L., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. & Gruber, N. (2023). Recent trends and variability in the oceanic storage of dissolved inorganic carbon. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37: e2022GB007677. doi:10.1029/2022GB007677 [publisher-version]
  • Landschützer, P., Tanhua, T., Behncke, J. & Keppler, L. (2023). Sailing through the southern seas of air-sea CO2 flux uncertainty. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 381: 20220064. doi:10.1098/rsta.2022.0064 [publisher-version]
  • Mayot, N., Le Quéré, C., Rödenbeck, C., Bernardello, R., Bopp, L., Djeutchouang, L., Gehlen, M., Gregor, L., Gruber, N., Hauck, J., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Keeling, R., Landschützer, P., Manning, A., Patara, L., Resplandy, L., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Watson, A., Wright, R. & Zeng, J. (2023). Climate-driven variability of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 381: 20220055. doi:10.1098/rsta.2022.0055 [publisher-version]
  • Rustogi, P., Landschützer, P., Brune, S. & Baehr, J. (2023). The impact of seasonality on the annual air-sea carbon flux and its interannual variability. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 6: 66. doi:10.1038/s41612-023-00378-3 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Yasunaka, S., Manizza, M., Terhaar, J., Olsen, A., Yamaguchi, R., Landschützer, P., Watanabe, E., Carroll, D., Adiwira, H., Müller, J. & Hauck, J. (2023). An assessment of CO2 uptake in the Arctic Ocean from 1985 to 2018. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37. doi:10.1029/2023GB007806 [publisher-version]
  • Carroll, D., Menemenlis, D., Dutkiewicz, S., Lauderdale, J., Adkins, J., Bowman, K., Brix, H., Fenty, I., Gierach, M., Hill, C., Jahn, O., Landschützer, P., Manizza, M., Mazloff, M., Miller, C., Schimel, D., Verdy, A., Whitt, D. & Zhang, H. (2022). Attribution of space-time variability in global-ocean dissolved inorganic Carbon. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36: e2021GB007162. doi:10.1029/2021GB007162 [publisher-version]
  • Dong, Y., Bakker, D., Bell, T., Huang, B., Landschützer, P., Liss, P. & Yang, M. (2022). Update on the temperature corrections of global air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36: e2022GB007360. doi:10.1029/2022GB007360 [publisher-version]
  • Friedlingstein, P., O'Sullivan, M., Jones, M., Andrew, R., Gregor, L., Hauck, J., Le Quéré, C., Luijkx, I., Olsen, A., Peters, G., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Schwingshackl, C., Sitch, S., Canadell, J., Ciais, P., Jackson, R., Alin, S., Alkama, R., Arneth, A., Arora, V., Bates, N., Becker, M., Bellouin, N., Bittig, H., Bopp, L., Chevallier, F., Chini, L., Cronin, M., Evans, W., Falk, S., Feely, R., Gasser, T., Gehlen, M., Gkritzalis, T., Gloege, L., Grassi, G., Gruber, N., Gürses, Ö., Harris, I., Hefner, M., Houghton, R., Hurtt, G., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Jain, A., Jersild, A., Kadono, K., Kato, E., Kennedy, D., Goldewijk, K., Knauer, J., Korsbakken, J., Landschützer, P., Lefèvre, N., Lindsay, K., Liu, J., Liu, Z., Marland, G., Mayot, N., McGrath, M., Metzl, N., Monacci, N., Munro, D., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., O'Brien, K., Ono, T., Palmer, P., Pan, N., Pierrot, D., Pocock, K., Poulter, B., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Rodriguez, C., Rosan, T., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Shutler, J., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sun, Q., Sutton, A., Sweeney, C., Takao, S., Tanhua, T., Tans, P., Tian, X., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tsujino, H., Tubiello, F., van der Werf, G., Walker, A., Wanninkhof, R., Whitehead, C., Wranne, A., Wright, R., Yuan, W., Yue, C., Yue, X., Zaehle, S., Zeng, J. & Zheng, B. (2022). Global carbon budget 2022. Earth System Science Data, 14, 4811-4900. doi:10.5194/essd-14-4811-2022 [publisher-version]
  • Friedlingstein, P., Jones, M., O'Sullivan, M., Andrew, R., Bakker, D., Hauck, J., Le Quéré, C., Peters, G., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Sitch, S., Canadell, J., Ciais, P., Jackson, R., Alin, S., Anthoni, P., Bates, N., Becker, M., Bellouin, N., Bopp, L., Chau, T., Chevallier, F., Chini, L., Cronin, M., Currie, K., Decharme, B., Djeutchouang, L., Dou, X., Evans, W., Feely, R., Feng, L., Gasser, T., Gilfillan, D., Gkritzalis, T., Grassi, G., Gregor, L., Gruber, N., Gürses, Ö., Harris, I., Houghton, R., Hurtt, G., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Luijkx, I., Jain, A., Jones, S., Kato, E., Kennedy, D., Goldewijk, K., Knauer, J., Korsbakken, J., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S., Lefèvre, N., Lienert, S., Liu, J., Marland, G., McGuire, P., Melton, J., Munro, D., Nabel, J., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., Ono, T., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Rosan, T., Schwinger, J., Schwingshackl, C., Séférian, R., Sutton, A., Sweeney, C., Tanhua, T., Tans, P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tubiello, F., van der Werf, G., Vuichard, N., Wada, C., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A., Willis, D., Wiltshire, A., Yuan, W., Yue, C., Yue, X., Zaehle, S. & Zeng, J. (2022). Global carbon budget 2021. Earth System Science Data, 14, 1917-2005. doi:10.5194/essd-14-1917-2022 [publisher-version]
  • Landschützer, P., Keppler, L. & Ilyina, T. (2022). Ocean systems. In Poulter, B. (Eds.), Balancing greenhouse gas budgets (pp.427-452). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Mackay, N., Watson, A., Suntharalingam, P., Chen, Z. & Landschützer, P. (2022). Improved winter data coverage of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink from extrapolation of summertime observations. Communications Earth and Environment, 3: 265. doi:10.1038/s43247-022-00592-6 [publisher-version]
  • Mignot, A., von Schuckmann, K., Landschützer, P., Gasparin, F., van Gennip, S., Perruche, C., Lamouroux, J. & Amm, T. (2022). Decrease in air-sea CO2 fluxes caused by persistent marine heatwaves. Nature Communications, 13: 4300. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-31983-0 [publisher-version]
  • Olivarez, H., Lovenduski, N., Brady, R., Fay, A., Gehlen, M., Gregor, L., Landschützer, P., McKinley, G., McKinnon, K. & Munro, D. (2022). Alternate histories: Synthetic large ensembles of sea-air CO2 flux. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36: e2021GB007174. doi:10.1029/2021GB007174
  • Olivier, L., Boutin, J., Reverdin, G., Lefevre, N., Landschützer, P., Speich, S., Karstensen, J., Labaste, M., Noisel, C., Ritschel, M., Steinhoff, T. & Wanninkhof, R. (2022). Wintertime process study of the North Brazil Current rings reveals the region as a larger sink for CO2 than expected. Biogeosciences, 19, 2969-2988. doi:10.5194/bg-19-2969-2022 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Ostle, C., Landschützer, P., Edwards, M., Johnson, M., Schmidtko, S., Schuster, U., Watson, A. & Robinson, C. (2022). Multidecadal changes in biology influence the variability of the North Atlantic carbon sink. Environmental Research Letters, 17: 114056. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac9ecf [publisher-version]
  • Becker, M., Olsen, A., Landschützer, P., Omar, A., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C. & Skjelvan, I. (2021). The northern European shelf as an increasing net sink for CO2. Biogeosciences, 18, 1127-1147. doi:10.5194/bg-18-1127-2021 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Fay, A., Gregor, L., Landschützer, P., McKinley, G., Gruber, N., Gehlen, M., Iida, Y., Laruelle, G., Rödenbeck, C. & Zeng, J. (2021). SeaFlux: harmonization of air–sea CO2 fluxes from surface pCO2 data products using a standardized approach. Earth System Science Data, 13, 4693-4710. doi:10.5194/essd-13-4693-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Gloege, L., McKinley, G., Landschuetzer, P., Fay, A., Froelicher, T., Fyfe, J., Ilyina, T., Jones, S., Lovenduski, N., Rodgers, K., Schlunegger, S. & Takano, Y. (2021). Quantifying errors in observationally based estimates of ocean carbon sink variability. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35: e2020GB006788. doi:10.1029/2020GB006788 [publisher-version]
  • Johnson, G., Lurnpkin, R., Alin, S., Amaya, D., Baringer, M., Boyer, T., Brandt, P., Carter, B., Cetinic, I., Chambers, D., Cheng, L., Collins, A., Cosca, C., Domingues, R., Dong, S., Feely, R., Frajka-Williams, E., Franz, B., Gilson, J., Goni, G., Hamlington, B., Herrford, J., Hu, Z.-Z., Huang, B., Ishii, M., Jevrejeva, S., Kennedy, J., Kersale, M., Killick, R., Landschützer, P., Lankhorst, M., Leuliette, E., Locarnini, R., Lyman, J., Marra, J., Meinen, C., Merrifield, M., Mitchum, G., Moat, B., Nerem, R., Perez, R., Purkey, S., Reagan, J., Sanchez-Franks, A., Scannell, H., Schmid, C., Scott, J., Siegel, D., Smeed, D., Stackhouse, P., Sweet, W., Thompson, P., Trinanes, J., Volkov, D., Wanninkhof, R., Weller, R., Wen, C., Westberry, T., Widlansky, M., Wilber, A., Yu, L. & Zhang, H.-M. (2021). Global oceans. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(State of the Climate in 2020), S143-S198. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1 [publisher-version]
  • Stephan, C., Schnitt, S., Schulz, H., Bellenger, H., de Szoeke, S., Acquistapace, C., Baier , K., Dauhut, T., Laxenaire, R., Morfa Avalos, Y., Person, R., Meléndez, E., Bagheri, G., Böck, T., Daley, A., Güttler, J., Helfer, K., Los, S., Neuberger, A., Röttenbacher, J., Raeke, A., Ringel, M., Ritschel, M., Sadoulet, P., Schirmacher, I., Stolla, M., Wright, E., Charpentier, B., Doerenbecher, A., Wilson, R., Jansen, F., Kinne, S., Reverdin, G., Speich, S., Bony, S. & Stevens, B. (2021). Ship- and island-based atmospheric soundings from the 2020 EUREC4A field campaign. Earth System Science Data, 18, 491-514. doi:10.5194/essd-13-491-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Stevens, B., Bony, S., Farrell, D., Ament, F., Blyth, A., Fairall, C., Karstensen, J., Quinn, P., Speich, S., Acquistapace, C., Aemisegger, F., Albright, A., Bellenger, H., Bodenschatz, E., Caesar, K.-A., Chewitt-Lucas, R., de Boer, G., Delanoë, J., Denby, L., Ewald, F., Fildier, B., Forde, M., George, G., Gross, S., Hagen, M., Hausold, A., Heywood, K., Hirsch, L., Jacob, M., Jansen, F., Kinne, S., Klocke, D., Kölling, T., Konow, H., Lothon, M., Mohr, W., Naumann, A., Nuijens, L., Olivier, L., Pincus, R., Pöhlker, M., Reverdin, G., Roberts, G., Schnitt, S., Schulz, H., Siebesma, A., Stephan, C., Sullivan, P., Touzé-Peiffer, L., Vial, J., Vogel, R., Zuidema, P., Alexander, N., Alves, L., Arixi, S., Asmath, H., Bagheri, G., Baier , K., Bailey, A., Baranowski, D., Baron, A., Barrau, S., Barrett, P., Batier, F., Behrendt, A., Bendinger, A., Beucher, F., Bigorre, S., Blades, E., Blossey, P., Bock, O., Böing, S., Bosser, P., Bourras, D., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Bower, K., Branellec, P., Branger, H., Brennek, M., Brewer, A., Brilouet, P.-E., Brügmann, B., Buehler, S., Burke, E., Burton, R., Calmer, R., Canonici, J.-C., Carton, X., Cato, G., Charles, J., Chazette, P., Chen, Y., Chilinski, M., Choularton, T., Chuang, P., Clarke, S., Coe, H., Cornet, C., Coutris, P., Couvreux, F., Crewell, S., Cronin, T., Cui, Z., Cuypers, Y., Daley, A., Damerell, G., Dauhut, T., Deneke, H., Desbios, J.-P., Dörner, S., Donner, S., Douet, V., Drushka, K., Dütsch, M., Ehrlich, A., Emanuel, K., Emmanouilidis, A., Etienne, J.-C., Etienne-Leblanc, S., Faure, G., Feingold, G., Ferrero, L., Fix, A., Flamant, C., Flatau, P., Foltz, G., Forster, L., Furtuna, I., Gadian, A., Galewsky, J., Gallagher, M., Gallimore, P., Gaston, C., Gentemann, C., Geyskens, N., Giez, A., Gollop, J., Gouirand, I., Gourbeyre, C., de Graaf, D., de Groot, G., Grosz, R., Güttler, J., Gutleben, M., Hall, K., Harris, G., Helfer, K., Henze, D., Herbert, C., Holanda, B., Ibanez-Landeta, A., Intrieri, J., Iyer, S., Julien, F., Kalesse, H., Kazil, J., Kellman, A., Kidane, A., Kirchner, U., Klingebiel, M., Körner, M., Kremper, L., Kretzschmar, J., Krüger, O., Kumala, W., Kurz, A., L'Hégaret, P., Labaste, M., Lachlan-Cope, T., Laing, A., Landschützer, P., Lang, T., Lange, D., Lange, I., Laplace, C., Lavik, G., Laxenaire, R., Le Bihan, C., Leandro, M., Lefevre, N., Lena, M., Lenschow, D., Li, Q., Lloyd, G., Los, S., Losi, N., Lovell, O., Luneau, C., Makuch, P., Malinowski, S., Manta, G., Marinou, E., Marsden, N., Masson, S., Maury, N., Mayer, B., Mayers-Als, M., Mazel, C., McGeary, W., McWilliams, J., Mech, M., Mehlmann, M., Meroni, A., Mieslinger, T., Minikin, A., Minnett, P., Möller, G., Morfa Avalos, Y., Muller, C., Musat, I., Napoli, A., Neuberger, A., Noisel, C., Noone, D., Nordsiek, F., Nowak, J., Oswald, L., Parker, D., Peck, C., Person, R., Philippi, M., Plueddemann, A., Pöhlker, C., Pörtge, V., Pöschl, U., Pologne, L., Posyniak, M., Prange, M., Meléndez, E., Radtke, J., Ramage, K., Reimann, J., Renault, L., Reus, K., Reyes, A., Ribbe, J., Ringel, M., Ritschel, M., Rocha, C., Rochetin, N., Röttenbacher, J., Rollo, C., Royer, H., Sadoulet, P., Saffin, L., Sandiford, S., Sandu, I., Schäfer, M., Schemann, V., Schirmacher, I., Schlenczek, O., Schmidt, J., Schröder, M., Schwarzenboeck, A., Sealy, A., Senff, C., Serikov, I., Shohan, S., Siddle, E., Smirnov, A., Späth, F., Spooner, B., Stolla, M., Szkółka, W., de Szoeke, S., Tarot, S., Tetoni, E., Thompson, E., Thomson, J., Tomassini, L., Totems, J., Ubele, A., Villiger, L., von Arx, J., Wagner, T., Walther, A., Webber, B., Wendisch, M., Whitehall, S., Wiltshire, A., Wing, A., Wirth, M., Wiskandt, J., Wolf, K., Worbes, L., Wright, E., Wulfmeyer, V., Young, S., Zhang, C., Zhang, D., Ziemen, F., Zinner, T. & Zöger, M. (2021). EUREC4A. Earth System Science Data, 13, 4067-4119. doi:10.5194/essd-13-4067-2021 [publisher-version]
  • Carroll, D., Menemenlis, D., Adkins, J., Bowman, K., Brix, H., Dutkiewicz, S., Fenty, I., Gierach, M., Hill, C., Jahn, O., Landschützer, P., Lauderdale, J., Liu, J., Manizza, M., Naviaux, J., Rödenbeck, C., Schimel, D., Van der Stocken, T. & Zhang, H. (2020). The ECCO‐Darwin data‐assimilative global ocean biogeochemistry model: Estimates of seasonal to multi‐decadal surface ocean pCO2 and air‐sea CO2 flux. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12: e2019MS001888. doi:10.1029/2019MS001888 [publisher-version]
  • Friedlingstein, P., O'Sullivan, M., Jones, M., Andrew, R., Hauck, J., Olsen, A., Peters, G., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Sitch, S., Le Quéré, C., Canadell, J., Ciais, P., Jackson, R., Alin, S., Aragão, L., Arneth, A., Arora, V., Bates, N., Becker, M., Benoit-Cattin, A., Bittig, H., Bopp, L., Bultan, S., Chandra, N., Chevallier, F., Chini, L., Evans, W., Florentie, L., Forster, P., Gasser, T., Gehlen, M., Gilfillan, D., Gkritzalis, T., Gregor, L., Gruber, N., Harris, I., Hartung, K., Haverd, V., Houghton, R., Ilyina, T., Jain, A., Joetzjer, E., Kadono, K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Korsbakken, J., Landschützer, P., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lienert, S., Liu, Z., Lombardozzi, D., Marland, G., Metzl, N., Munro, D., Nabel, J., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., O'Brien, K., Ono, T., Palmer, P., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Skjelvan, I., Smith, A., Sutton, A., Tanhua, T., Tans, P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., van der Werf, G., Vuichard, N., Walker, A., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A., Willis, D., Wiltshire, A., Yuan, W., Yue, X. & Zaehle, S. (2020). Global carbon budget 2020. Earth System Science Data, 12, 3269-3340. doi:10.5194/essd-12-3269-2020 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Hauck, J., Zeising, M., Le Quere, C., Gruber, N., Bakker, D., Bopp, L., Chau, T., Guerses, O., Ilyina, T., Landschützer, P., Lenton, A., Resplandy, L., Roedenbeck, C., Schwinger, J. & Seferian, R. (2020). Consistency and challenges in the ocean carbon sink estimate for the global carbon budget. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7: 571720. doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.571720 [publisher-version]
  • Keppler, L. (2020). Variability of the contemporary Southern Ocean carbon fluxes and storage. Phd Thesis, Hamburg: Universität Hamburg. Berichte zur Erdsystemforschung, 235. doi:10.17617/2.3243301 [publisher-version]
  • Landschützer, P. & Keppler, L. (2020). Ein neuer Meilenstein in der Schließung des Ozean-Kohlenstoffbudgets. Jahrbuch / Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 2020. [publisher-version]
  • Landschützer, P., Laruelle, G., Roobaert, A. & Regnier, P. (2020). A uniform pCO(2) climatology combining open and coastal oceans. Earth System Science Data, 12, 2537-2553. doi:10.5194/essd-12-2537-2020 [publisher-version]
  • Watson, A., Schuster, U., Shutler, J., Holding, T., Ashton, I., Landschützer, P., Woolf, D. & Goddijn-Murphy, L. (2020). Revised estimates of ocean-atmosphere CO2 flux are consistent with ocean carbon inventory. Nature Communications, 11: 4422. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18203-3 [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Bushinsky, S., Landschützer, P., Rödenbeck, C., Gray, A., Baker, D., Mazloff, M., Resplandy, L., Johnson, K. & Sarmiento, J. (2019). Reassessing southern ocean air‐sea CO2 flux estimates with the addition of biogeochemical float observations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, 1370-1388. doi:10.1029/2019GB006176 [publisher-version]
  • Gruber, N., Landschützer, P. & Lovenduski, N. (2019). The variable southern ocean carbon sink. Annual Review of Marine Science, 11, 159-186. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063407
  • Keppler, L. & Landschützer, P. (2019). Regional wind variability modulates the Southern Ocean Carbon sink. Scientific Reports, 9: 7384. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-43826-y [publisher-version][supplementary-material]
  • Landschützer, P., Ilyina, T. & Lovenduski, N. (2019). Detecting regional modes of variability in observation-based surface ocean pCO2. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 2670-2679. doi:10.1029/2018GL081756 [publisher-version]
  • Lebehot, A., Halloran, P., Watson, A., McNeall, D., Ford, D., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. & Schuster, U. (2019). Reconciling observation and model trends in North Atlantic surface CO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1204-1222. doi:10.1029/2019GB006186 [publisher-version]
  • Li, H., Ilyina, T., Müller, W. & Landschützer, P. (2019). Predicting the variable ocean carbon sink. Science Advances, 5: eaav6471. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav6471 [publisher-version][publisher-version]
  • Roobaert, A., Laruelle, G., Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Chou, L. & Regnier, P. (2019). The spatiotemporal dynamics of the sources and sinks of CO2 in the global coastal ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, 1693-1714. doi:10.1029/2019GB006239 [publisher-version]
  • Feely, R., Wanninkhof, R., Carter , B., Landschützer, P., Sutton, A. & Trinanes, J. (2018). Global ocean carbon cycle [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(Spec. Iss.), S96-S100. doi:10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1 [publisher-version]
  • Le Quéré, C., Andrew, R., Friedlingstein, P., Sitch, S., Hauck, J., Pongratz, J., Pickers, P., Korsbakken, J., Peters, G., Canadell, J., Arneth, A., Arora, V., Barbero, L., Bastos, A., Bopp, L., Chevallier, F., Chini, L., Ciais, P., Doney, S., Gkritzalis, T., Goll, D., Harris, I., Haverd, V., Hoffman, F., Hoppema, M., Houghton, R., Ilyina, T., Jain, A., Johannesen, T., Jones, C., Kato, E., Keeling, R., Goldewijk, K., Landschützer, P., Lefèvre, N., Lienert, S., Lombardozzi, D., Metzl, N., Munro, D., Nabel, J., Nakaoka, S.-I., Neill, C., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Patra, P., Peregon, A., Peters, W., Peylin, P., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rocher, M., Rödenbeck , C., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sutton, A., Tans, P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tubiello, F., van der Laan-Luijkx, I., van der Werf, G., Viovy, N., Walker, A., Wiltshire, A., Wright, R. & Zaehle, S. (2018). Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth System Science Data, 10, 2141-2194. doi:10.5194/essd-2018-120 [publisher-version]


Dr. Peter Landschützer

Group leader
peter.landschuetzer@we dont want spammpimet.mpg.de

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